The potyviruses (Potyviridae) are especially destructive for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and production is often negatively affected by Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), the watermelon strain of the Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W), and ZYMV. ZYMV is one of the most devastating and economically important virus diseases of cucumber worldwide (Desbiez and Lecoq, 1997; Lecoq et al., 1983; Provvidenti et al., 1984a), and several strains have been differentiated by serological and molecular approaches (Amano et al., 2013; Mahgoub et al., 1997; Nováková et al., 2014; Provvidenti et al., 1984a, 1984b). Resistance to ZYMV has been reported in cucumber. Provvidenti (1987) and Provvidenti et al. (1984a) identified a single recessive gene (zymTMG-1) in a selection (TMG-1) from the Chinese cucumber ‘Taichung Mou Gua’, which has been widely used because it conditioned resistance to all of 173 ZYMV isolates (Lecoq et al., 2002) as well as other potyviruses such as PRSV-W, WMV (Kabelka and Grumet, 1997; Provvidenti, 1985), and Zucchini yellow fleck virus (Gilbert-Albertini et al., 1995). The commercial cucumber cultivar Dina-1 (Abul Hayja and Al-Shahwan, 1991; Al-Shahwan et al., 1995) possesses ZYMV resistance that is recessively inherited (zymDina-1) and is allelic or closely linked to zymTMG-1 (Kabelka et al., 1997). A Japanese slicing cucumber from Saitama Gensyu Ikuseikai Seed Company (A192-18) derived its ZYMV resistance from line G22 and is also inherited as a single recessive gene zymA192-18 (Amano et al., 2013; Svoboda et al., 2013). Subtle phenotypic differences have been observed for these sources of ZYMV resistance in cucumber. Resistance conditioned by the zymTMG-1 and zymDina-1 alleles constrains systemic movement of the virus through the plant (Ullah and Grumet, 2002). Al-Shahwan et al. (1995) and Provvidenti (1987) reported that ZYMV resistances from TMG-1 and Dina-1 occasionally developed a few chlorotic veins on the lower leaves. Kabelka et al. (1997) found that inoculating cotyledons of Dina-1 resulted in interveinal chlorosis on lower leaves; whereas TMG-1 had no symptoms regardless of inoculant placement. Svoboda et al. (2013) reported A192-18, G22, and TMG-1 as immune to ZYMV-H because no virus was detected by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electron microscopy.
Amano et al. (2013) proposed a VPS4-like gene as the candidate for zymA192-18, which may affect virus movement throughout the plant and it is the first example of association between a vacuolar sorting protein and a recessively inherited virus resistance in plants. In this research, we analyzed sequences of the VPS4-like gene from three sources of ZYMV resistance and two susceptible cucumbers, and revealed that in spite of different haplotypes, all three sources of ZYMV resistance encode the same protein sequence.
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List of primers used for sequencing of the vacuolar protein sorting–associated protein 4-like gene.