Jujube Cultivar Vitamin C Profile and Nutrient Dynamics during Maturation

in HortScience

Vitamin C profiles of 46 jujube cultivars were assessed from 2012 to 2015, and fruit nutrient dynamics of 10 cultivars during maturation were examined from 25 Aug. to 7 Oct. 2014 at 2-week intervals at New Mexico State University’s Alcalde Sustainable Agriculture Science Center and Los Lunas Agricultural Science Center. This is the first report in the United States profiling Vitamin C in jujube cultivars. The vitamin C content of mature fruit of 45 (of 46) cultivars ranged from 225 to 530 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) plus ‘Youzao’ having the highest content of 820 mg/100 g FW at early mature stage. In general, drying cultivars had higher vitamin C content than fresh-eating cultivars whereas ‘Jinsi’ series (multipurpose) had relatively higher vitamin C content than others (>400 mg/100 g FW). Fruit vitamin C and moisture content decreased significantly during the maturation process. The average vitamin C contents of nine cultivars at Alcalde decreased more than 40% based on FW from 25 Aug. to 7 Oct. To maximize the vitamin C benefit, the ideal stage to consume fresh-eating cultivars is the creamy stage. Titratable acidity and soluble solids increased significantly during maturation. In mature jujubes, the titratable acidity and soluble solids ranged between 0.27% to 0.46% and 27.2% to 33.7%, respectively. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose content also rose significantly during ripening. Mature fruits contained 31–82 mg/g FW glucose, 32–101 mg/g FW fructose, and 53–159 mg/g FW sucrose among the cultivars tested. Based on sucrose contents, cultivars can be divided into two groups, “high-sucrose” (more sucrose than glucose or fructose) and “low-sucrose” (less sucrose than glucose or fructose). ‘Dagua’, ‘Honeyjar’, ‘Lang’, ‘Li’, ‘Maya’, ‘Sugarcane’, and ‘Sherwood’ belong to the “high-sucrose” group. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-reducing capacity in fruit decreased during maturation, and the total phenolic content of mature jujube was 12–16 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW). For mature fruit, ‘Li’ and ‘Li-2’ had the highest DPPH-scavenging efficiency whereas ‘Sugarcane’, ‘So’, and ‘Lang’ had the lowest at Alcalde, NM.

Contributor Notes

We thank Steve Guldan and Ivette Guzman from New Mexico State University for reviewing this article. We also thank David Salazar, David Archuleta, and Melanie Kirby for their technical assistance. This project was funded by a specialty crop block grant through the New Mexico Department of Agriculture, the New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station, and Hatch funds from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

Corresponding author. E-mail: yaos@nmsu.edu.

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    ‘Li’ and ‘Sugarcane’ samples from Los Lunas and Alcalde, NM at different sampling dates in 2014.

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    Glucose content (mg/g FW) dynamics of jujube cultivars. Three extracts were taken for each sample. The average glucose content was reported with the error bar as standard error. Cultivars at Los Lunas and ‘Shuimen’ at Alcalde were unavailable on 7 Oct.

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    Fructose content (mg/g FW) dynamics of jujube cultivars. Three extracts were taken for each sample. The average fructose content was reported with the error bar as standard error. Cultivars at Los Lunas and ‘Shuimen’ at Alcalde were unavailable on 7 Oct.

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    Sucrose content (mg/g FW) dynamics of jujube cultivars. Three extracts were taken for each sample. The average sucrose content was reported with the error bar as standard error. Cultivars at Los Lunas and ‘Shuimen’ at Alcalde were unavailable on 7 Oct.

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    Fruit glucose, fructose, and sucrose contents of jujube cultivars: Maya, Sherwood, Shuimen, and So in 2014 at Alcalde, NM. High-sucrose group: ‘Maya’ and ‘Sherwood’; and low-sucrose group: ‘Shuimen’ and ‘So’.

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    Total phenolic content (mg GAE/g DW) dynamics of jujube cultivars. Three extracts were taken for each sample. The average total phenolic content was reported with the error bar as standard error. Cultivars at Los Lunas and ‘Shuimen’ at Alcalde were unavailable on 7 Oct.

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    DPPH-scavenging efficiency dynamics of jujube cultivars. Three extracts were taken for each sample. The average EC50 was reported with the error bar as standard error. Cultivars at Los Lunas and ‘Shuimen’ at Alcalde were unavailable on 7 Oct.

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