‘Kalipso’ is a new cultivar of plum obtained in a plum breeding program at the Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture (now Research Institute of Horticulture) in Skierniewice, Poland, by Tadeusz Jakubowski and Edward Żurawicz. ‘Kalipso’ is a prolific cultivar. In the central part of Poland, ‘Kalipso’ plums ripen in the last 10 d of July are very tasty, typically dessert in character, but also suitable for processing. Fruit is not very prone to dropping and remain on the tree after reaching harvest maturity. The tree grows moderately vigorously and comes early into bearing fruit. ‘Kalipso’ is tolerant to Plum pox virus (PPV), a causal agent of sharka (plum pox) disease. With standard orchard protection, the flowers, shoots, and fruit are unaffected by brown rot [Monilinia laxa (Aderh. et Ruth.) Honey] and [Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. et Ruth.) Honey]. To obtain abundant fruiting, ‘Kalipso’ trees should be grown in the presence of pollinating cultivars (pollinizers), such as ‘Jojo’, ‘Węgierka Dąbrowicka’, ‘Čačanska Rana’, or ‘Emper’.
Prunus domestica is an economically important fruit crop species in Poland. In the last 10 years, the annual production of plums in Poland has amounted to about 100,000 t (FAOSTAT, 2013; GUS, 2014). In terms of the overall fruit production in Poland, plums are in sixth place—behind apples, sour cherries, strawberries, currants, and red raspberries. The program of breeding new cultivars of plum at the Research Institute of Pomology began in 1954. This program developed the ‘Węgierka Dąbrowicka’ plum and three clones of the ‘Common Prune’, which were named ‘Nectavit’, ‘Promis’, and ‘Tolar’ (Jakubowski, 1998; Rozpara et al., 1998). At present, all these cultivars are grown on a commercial scale throughout the country. In 1991, the Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture launched a new program of breeding stone fruit trees (plum, sour cherry, peach, and apricot), the aim of which has been to derive new cultivars with different ripening times and high fruit quality, as well as being tolerant to disease, particularly to PPV (Jakubowski, 1998). Recently, one of the main directions of this program has also been to obtain cultivars tolerant to abiotic stresses, particularly cultivars that have low susceptibility to winter and spring subzero temperatures (Szymajda et al., 2013; Szymajda and Żurawicz, 2014). The breeding program has already produced three cultivars of plum—‘Kalipso’, ‘Emper’, and ‘Polinka’, which are currently being introduced into commercial fruit production in Poland.
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