Lilies (Lilium sp.), a world-famous flowering plant belonging to the Liliaceae Lilium, have a very high ornamental value and occupy an important position in the international flower industry (Suh et al., 2013). The root system serves as a bridge connecting material exchange between the soil and plant shoot. A strong root system is important to ensure the proper growth and development of the shoot. Most studies have focused only on shoots rather than roots due to difficulties in research methods and limited recognition of the root system. Domestic and international studies of the underground parts of lilies mainly focused on the influence of different factors such as planting depth, flurprimidol treatment (Whipker et al., 2011), environmental and climatic factors (Treder, 2008; Xia et al., 2005), and foliar applications of biological agents (De Lucia and Vecchietti, 2012; Zheng et al., 2012) on the growth of bulbs. Recently, the influence of bulb sizes on cut flower (Kim and Pak, 2011) and the relationship between bulb refrigeration and dormancy breakage (Niu et al., 2015; Sook, 2012; Suh et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2011) have undergone extensive studies.
The root system of lily is unique compared with other flower bulbs as it is composed of the basal root system and the stem root system. The fleshy basal roots grow at the basal plate under the bulb, while after the shoot has emerged from the soil and grown to a certain height, the stem roots will grow as fibrous roots between the base of the shoot and the top of the bulb (roots are underneath the soil). Some studies have reported why there are two root systems with different locations and morphologies in lilies, the functions of these roots during lily growth and development and how the root systems are related with the growth and development of lily shoots (Jimmy et al., 1990; Kim et al., 2003). In this study, we observed the shoots (stems and leaves) and underground parts (bulbs, basal roots, and stem roots) of lilies and carried out different treatment (cutting of stem roots, basal roots, and bulbs) to discuss and compare the relationship between shoots and underground parts in terms of lily growth, thereby providing theoretical basis for lily cultivation and management.
ChenZ.WangJ.SunJ.WangM.2015Study on high efficient cultivation technique in Chrysanthemum. Chinese Horticulture Abstracts 28–29
De LuciaB.VecchiettiL.2012Type of bio-stimulant and application method effects on stem quality and root system growth in L.A. LilyEur. J. Hort. Sci.771015
KimH.J.KimJ.M.ChoiD.C.ChoiJ.S.ChoiY.G.2003Bulb scale removal on vegetative growth, flowering, and flower quality of Lilium sppHort. Environ. Biotechnol.44829832
LiuJ.C.WeiZ.X.1994Disciplinary study on the increase of fresh weight in Lilium davidii var willmottiae. China Vegetables 27–30
NiuL.J.LiB.LiaoW.B.ZhuY.C.WangM.JinX.XuQ.Q.2015Effect of nitric oxide on dormancy release in bulbs of oriental lily (Lilium orientalis) ‘Siberia’J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol.90594598
SookP.I.2012Changes in morphological characteristics and sugar contents according to harvest time and cold storage duration in Lilium oriental hybrids bulbsFlower Res. J.20204210
SuhJ.K.WuX.W.LeeA.K.RohM.S.2013Growth and flowering physiology, and developing new technologies to increase the flower numbers in the Genus LiliumHort. Environ. Biotechnol.54373387
WhipkerB.E.McCallI.BarnesJ.BuhlerW.KrugB.CurreyC.LopezR.2011Flurprimidol preplant bulb soaks control growth of potted Liliums p. 79–87. In: A. Grassotti and G. Burchi (eds.). 2nd International Symposium on the Genus Lilium Acta Horticulturae Vol. 900 Pescia Italy
XiaY.P.ZhengH.J.HuangC.H.2005Studies on the bulb development and its physiological mechanisms in Lilium oriental hybrids p. 91–98. In: H. Okubo W.B. Miller and G.A. Chastagner (eds.). 9th International Symposium on Flower Bulbs Acta Horticulturae Niigata Japan
ZhangY.J.XieZ.K.WangY.J.AnL.P.2011Changes in carbohydrate metabolism and bulb growth as induced by low-temperature release of dormancy in lily bulbsPhilipp. Agr. Sci.94149154
ZhangY.QinH.WuL.ZhangJ.LiZ.HuangM.JiangL.2014Growth characteristics and the effect of nitrogen application on the maize rootZhongguo Nongye Daxue Xuebao196270
ZhengR.R.WuY.XiaY.P.2012Chlorocholine chloride and paclobutrazol treatments promote carbohydrate accumulation in bulbs of Lilium Oriental hybrids ‘Sorbonne’J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B13136144
ZouH.G.NingY.F.JiangR.L.2003Dynamic changes of development of characters in Lilium longiflorum. Northern Hort. 60–61