The terms “stip” (Smith et al., 1996, 1997, 1998), “black spot” (Villalon, 1975), “colour spots” (Aloni et al., 1994; Feigin and Sagiv, 1987), “green spotting” (Carroll, 1979), “green pitting” (Hibberd, 1981), “spotting” (Uffelen, 1973, 1975), “bitter pit” (Eijsinga et al., 1973), and “pepper spot” (Stolk and Maaswinkel, 1977) are different names that have been used in the literature to describe what is likely the same physiological disorder of peppers. This disorder, hereafter referred to as stip, was independently described twice in the 1970s, once in the Netherlands and once in Texas (Eijsinga et al., 1973; Villalon, 1975). Stip symptoms have been described most extensively in bell peppers (Aloni et al., 1994; Carroll, 1979; Eijsinga et al., 1973; Feigin and Sagiv, 1987; Hibberd, 1981; Smith et al., 1996, 1997, 1998; Stolk and Maaswinkel, 1977; Uffelen, 1973, 1975; Villalon, 1975); however, pimento, and New Mexican pod-type peppers have also been mentioned (Smith et al., 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Villalon, 1975; Table 1).
A summary of the published literature referencing the physiological disorder known as stip in peppers, arranged alphabetically by author.
Previous studies have attempted to establish that stip is not a consequence of any known virus, bacterium, or fungus (Eijsinga et al., 1973; Hibberd, 1981; Smith et al., 1996; Villalon, 1975), and no insect damage is reported in connection with this disorder (Eijsinga et al., 1973; Hibberd, 1981; Villalon, 1975). Consequently, symptoms are believed to be a manifestation of a physiological disorder (Aloni et al., 1994; Carroll, 1979; Eijsinga et al., 1973; Feigin and Sagiv, 1987; Hibberd, 1981; Smith et al., 1996, 1997; Stolk and Maaswinkel, 1977; Uffelen, 1973, 1975; Villalon, 1975). The disorder has been sporadically reported in geographically distant academic journals over the past 40 years, likely because it presents as a problem in a given production area for brief, and apparently random times. As a result, there has not been sustained and focused attention on studying the condition. Therefore, a comprehensive review that consolidates the information generated through these spatially and temporally disparate studies can be useful to describe, synthesize, and present previous research results to interested readers, not only of academic interest but commercial as well. This review should facilitate advances toward a deeper understanding of the disorder leading to effective treatments and additional preventive measures instead of repeating previously conducted, yet difficult to obtain, studies.
Aloni, B., Rylski, L. & Zaidman, Z. 1994 The effect on nitrogen fertilization and shading on the incidence of “colour spots” in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit J. Hort. Sci. 69 767 773
Eijsinga, R., Rodenburg, R. & Uffelen, L.G. 1973 Bitter pit, a new quality problem in red peppers (in Dutch) Bedrijfsontwikkeling. 4 7/8 733 734
Feigin, A. & Sagiv, B. 1987 Excessive nitrogen fertilization enhances “colour spots” in pepper fruits (in Hebrew) Hassadeh. 67 8 1564 1566
Hibberd, A.M. 1981 Symptoms of and variety reaction to green pitting, a non-pathological disorder of red bell peppers in Queensland Queensland J. Agr. Animal Sci. 38 1 47 53
Kim, K., Min, J.-Y. & Dickman, M. 2008 Oxalic acid is an elicitor of plant programmed cell death during Sclerotinia sclerotiorum disease development Mol. Plant-Microbe Interactions. 21 605 612
Kostman, T., Tarlyn, N., Loewus, F. & Franceschi, V. 2001 Biosynthesis of l-ascorbic acid and conversion of carbons 1 and 2 of l-ascorbic acid to oxalic acid occurs within individual calcium oxalate crystal idioblasts Plant Physiol. 125 634 640
Mullen, R., Valencia, J., Viss, T., Whiteley, S., Brunmeier, D., Rogers, W., Rego, M., Cancilla, C., Noriega, J. & Sanchez, V. 2000 Bell pepper evaluation trials in California’s Northern San Joaquin Valley. National Pepper Conference. 16
North Carolina State University 1996 Vegetable cultivar descriptions for North America. Pepper (A-Z). Paul W. Bosland (ed.)
Seminis 2015 Stip. 6 Jan. 2016. <http://www.seminis-us.com/resources/disease-guides/pepper-eggplant/stip/>
Smith, R., Mullen, B. & Hartz, T. 1995 Epidemiology and control of pepper stip. CA. Pepper Comm., Dinuba, CA (abstr.)
Smith, R., Mullen, B. & Hartz, T. 1996 Epidemiology and control of pepper stip. CA. Pepper Comm., Dinuba, CA
Smith, R., Mullen, B. & Hartz, T. 1997 Epidemiology and control of pepper stip. CA. Pepper Comm., Dinuba, CA
Smith, R., Mullen, B. & Hartz, T. 1998 Epidemiology and control of pepper stip. CA. Pepper Comm., Dinuba, CA
Smith, R., Mullen, B. & Hartz, T. 1999 Epidemiology and control of pepper stip. CA. Pepper Comm., Dinuba, CA
Soto-Ortiz, R. 2008 Crop phenology, dry matter production, and nutrient uptake and partitioning in cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) and chile (Capsicum annuum L.). Univ. of Ariz., Tucson, PhD Diss. 1–173
Villalon, B. 1975 Black spot: A non-parasitic disease of bell pepper fruit in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas Plant Dis. Rptr. 59 11 926 927
Wien, H.C. & Zitter, T.A. 2003 Color spotting, p. 53–54. In: K. Pernezny, P.D. Roberts, J.F. Murphy, and N.P. Goldberg (eds.). Compendium of pepper disease. Amer. Phytopathol. Soc. Press, St. Paul, MN