This study was undertaken to critically analyze the effects of reduced phosphorus (P) on shoot and root growth, partitioning, and phosphorus utilization efficiency (PUtE) in lantana (Lantana camara ‘New Gold’). Plants were grown in a 1:1 mixture of perlite and vermiculite with complete nutrient solutions containing a range of P concentrations considered to be deficient (1 mg·L−1), low (3 and 5 mg·L−1), adequate (10 mg·L−1), and high (20 and 30 mg·L−1). Higher P supply had most dramatic effect on increasing the number of leaves and leaf surface area, subsequently leading to a disproportionate increase in shoot biomass than root biomass. Increasing P from 1 to 30 mg·L−1 linearly (P < 0.0001) increased shoot dry weight (DW) during vegetative growth, and logarithmically (P < 0.0001) during reproductive growth. Regardless of plant growth stage, biomass of roots and flowers (inflorescences) logarithmically increased (P < 0.0001) with increasing P concentrations. Plants grown with lower P allocated more biomass to roots than shoots, resulting in a higher root-to-shoot ratio. Increasing P concentration to 20 mg·L−1 increased the accumulation of P in all plant parts, but predominantly in shoots, whereas further increasing the concentration increased the accumulation primarily in roots and flowers. Higher P accumulation in plant tissues did not strongly contribute to the biomass production. Phosphorus utilization efficiency was higher with lower P supply in all plant tissues. P-deficient roots had the highest PUtE and specific root length (SRL), and retained higher proportion of P compared with nondeficient roots. Our results indicate that P concentration at 20 mg·L−1 is sufficient to maintain optimal vegetative growth while reproductive growth does not require P concentrations over 10 mg·L−1 as it stimulates greater level of P accumulation in plant parts with little or no effect on growth and flowering, and biomass accumulation in lantana.
This research was supported by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), and Multistate Hatch project NC-1186 (accession number 224879).
We thank Craig Okazaki and Ronald Matsuda for greenhouse assistance in conducting the experiments, Russell Yost for equipment support, and Leilani Nursery for plant material.
Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Current address: State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Root Biology Center, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, PR China.
BaileyD.A.NelsonP.V.2004Designing a greenhouse crop fertilization program. Department of Horticultural Sciences North Carolina State University Raleigh NC. 1 Jan. 2013. <https://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/floriculture/plugs/fertprog.pdf>.
BjerregårdA.HansenM.1983Oversigt over jordanalyser p. 110. In Jord vand næring. ed. Gartnerinfo Copenhagen
BostT.2014Carolinas getting started garden guide: Grow the best flowers shrubs trees vines & groundcovers. Cool Spring Press Minneapolis MN
BouquetA.G.B.1943Growing tomatoes in the gardenOregon State System of Higher Education Federal Cooperative Extension Service Oregon State College Corvallis Extension Bulletin62118
Bouquet,A.G.B.1943Growing tomatoes in the garden62118)| false
HuangC.Y.ShirleyN.GencY.ShiB.LangridgeP.2011Phosphate utilization efficiency correlates with expression of low-affinity phosphate transporters and noncoding RNA, IPS1, in barley. 2011Plant Physiol.156312171229
Huang,C.Y.Shirley,N.Genc,Y.Shi,B.Langridge,P.2011Phosphate utilization efficiency correlates with expression of low-affinity phosphate transporters and noncoding RNA, IPS1, in barley. 2011156312171229)| false
VeneklaasE.J.LambersH.BraggJ.FinneganP.M.LovelockC.E.PlaxtonW.C.PriceC.A.ScheibleW.ShaneM.W.WhiteP.J.RavenJ.A.2012Opportunities for improving phosphorus-use efficiency in crop plantsNew Phytol.195306320
Veneklaas,E.J.Lambers,H.Bragg,J.Finnegan,P.M.Lovelock,C.E.Plaxton,W.C.Price,C.A.Scheible,W.Shane,M.W.White,P.J.Raven,J.A.2012Opportunities for improving phosphorus-use efficiency in crop plants195306320)| false