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Over the past several decades, there has been a trend toward increasingly restrictive intellectual property rights (IPR) over plant germplasm including contracts, material transfer agreements (MTA), “bag tag” licenses, plant variety protection (PVP) certificates, and utility patents. This has limited the “freedom to operate” for plant breeders wanting to use a diverse array of germplasm in their breeding programs and has complicated the exchange of plant germplasm around the world (Luby et al., 2015). The goal of many plant breeding programs is to develop cultivars or inbred lines that are genetically stable and homogenous. The goal of breeding
We thank Steve Pincus and Beth Kazmar of Tipi Produce, Evansville, Wisconsin, and Eric Elderbrock of Elderberry Hill Farm, Waunakee, Wisconsin, for their collaboration in the field production of carrots used in this work. We thank the Clif Bar Family Foundation and Seed Matters for a Seed Matters Fellowship in Organic Plant Breeding. We thank North Central Region Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education and the Ceres Trust for partial support of this project.