Hot Water Combined with Calcium Treatment Improves Physical and Physicochemical Attributes of Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) during Storage

in HortScience

Kiwifruit has a short storage life and encounters severe disorders during maintenance mainly as a result of its climacteric behavior. The role of calcium and heat treatment in delaying degenerative processes during storage has been revealed. This study investigated the effects of hot water combined with calcium (Ca) dips on the quality of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward). Whole fruits were treated with hot water for 5, 10, and 15 minutes at 47 °C, therefore dipped in CaCl2 solution (2% w/v) and stored at 0 °C for up to 120 days. During storage, fruit were sampled at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days for postharvest quality evaluation. Postharvest evaluations included chromatic parameters (L*, a*, b*, hue, and chroma), firmness, and physiological parameters [phenolic content and polyphenol oxidase (PPO)]. Heating combined with Ca dips significantly reduced PPO activity. The results showed that mild heat treatments in combination with CaCl2 maintained chromatic parameters for kiwifruits compared with control and hot water or CaCl2 treatments solely. In addition, the levels of total phenolic compounds remained significantly higher for hot water combined with CaCl2-treated fruit as compared with control or untreated fruits. According to the results, hot water treatments had a significant firming effect, whereas CaCl2 dips solely had less effect on chromatic parameters. However, the influence of hot water treatments was dependent on application time with (treatment that showed significant results) showing significant improved kiwifruit postharvest qualities. Overall, with this simple and non-contaminant technology, after long-term storage, quality of kiwifruit could be even greater than in recently harvested fruits.

Abstract

Kiwifruit has a short storage life and encounters severe disorders during maintenance mainly as a result of its climacteric behavior. The role of calcium and heat treatment in delaying degenerative processes during storage has been revealed. This study investigated the effects of hot water combined with calcium (Ca) dips on the quality of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward). Whole fruits were treated with hot water for 5, 10, and 15 minutes at 47 °C, therefore dipped in CaCl2 solution (2% w/v) and stored at 0 °C for up to 120 days. During storage, fruit were sampled at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days for postharvest quality evaluation. Postharvest evaluations included chromatic parameters (L*, a*, b*, hue, and chroma), firmness, and physiological parameters [phenolic content and polyphenol oxidase (PPO)]. Heating combined with Ca dips significantly reduced PPO activity. The results showed that mild heat treatments in combination with CaCl2 maintained chromatic parameters for kiwifruits compared with control and hot water or CaCl2 treatments solely. In addition, the levels of total phenolic compounds remained significantly higher for hot water combined with CaCl2-treated fruit as compared with control or untreated fruits. According to the results, hot water treatments had a significant firming effect, whereas CaCl2 dips solely had less effect on chromatic parameters. However, the influence of hot water treatments was dependent on application time with (treatment that showed significant results) showing significant improved kiwifruit postharvest qualities. Overall, with this simple and non-contaminant technology, after long-term storage, quality of kiwifruit could be even greater than in recently harvested fruits.

The kiwifruit was introduced to the world market from New Zealand in 1950s. The export of fresh fruit led to rapid expansion (Barboni et al., 2010). Production is almost exclusively of the cultivar Hayward because of its longer storage life and its larger fruit size (Franco et al., 2006). The increasing market demand for this fruit has challenged postharvest and food technologists to develop procedures to lengthen storage life (Piga et al., 2003).

With attention to the risk of improper use of chemicals in postharvest technology and consumer's demand for healthy products, study on application of postharvest treatments such as heat treatment is necessary (Shafiee et al., 2010). Heat treatments have already been used to control postharvest decay and to improve the storage quality in intact fruits as a result of changes it induces in physiological and physicochemical characteristics and post-processing quality (Beirão-da-Costa et al., 2006). Heat treatments also inhibited ripening, softening, and improved postharvest quality. This was observed in the case of whole fruit with apples (Klein and Lurie, 1990), strawberries (Civello et al., 1997), citrus fruit (Porat et al., 2000), and mangoes (Benitez et al., 2006). The mechanism by which a heat treatment causes changes in fruit ripening such as inhibition of ethylene synthesis and cell wall degrading enzymes may be the result of changes in gene expression and protein synthesis. During a high-temperature treatment, the mRNA of fruit-ripening genes decreases and those of heat shock proteins accumulates (Lurie, 1998).

Ca plays a significant role in maintaining quality in a number of different fruits (Hopkirk et al., 1990). Pre- and postharvest Ca application has been demonstrated to produce beneficial effects on whole fruit quality, decreasing the incidence of physiological disorders (Serrano et al., 2004) and delaying softening (Antunes et al., 2004). Ca is directly involved in strengthening plant cell walls through its ability to crosslink with carboxyl groups of polyuronide chains of pectins found in the middle lamella (Lara et al., 2004). Furthermore, Ca ions help in the stabilization of cell membranes (Picchioni et al., 1995) and affecting cellular turgor pressure (Mignani et al., 1995).

Temperature can have an effect on Ca uptake. A combination of heat treatment followed by Ca dip has also been applied for the primary purpose of controlling postharvest pests and/or diseases and has been found to have satisfactory results in maintaining or improving the texture of several products. In this sense, Ca application, combined or not with heat treatments, maintained firmness in a wide variety of fruit and vegetables including lettuce (Roura et al., 2008).

According to our review, there is no report on postharvest application of Ca and hot water on qualitative parameters of kiwifruit during cold storage. The overall aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of hot water combined with Ca solution treatments to maintain qualitative characteristics of kiwifruit during cold storage.

Materials and Methods

Plant material

Mature, unripe kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) of medium-sized (80 to 120 g) fruits, free from visible defects or decay, were harvested from a commercial orchard in Gorgan, Iran, with average firmness of 9.8 kg·cm–2 and 7% °Brix. Fruits were immediately transferred to the postharvest laboratory at Shiraz University.

Treatments

Kiwifruits were divided into eight groups (each group considered for one treatment). The first three groups were treated with hot water for 5, 10, and 15 min (HW5, HW10, and HW15). One group was treated with CaCl2 (2% w/v) solution for 10 min. Three other groups were treated with hot water for 5, 10, and 15 min and then dipped in 2% CaCl2 solution for 10 min. One group without any treatment was considered a control. The temperature of hot water was 47 °C. Four replicates and eight fruits per replicate were considered for each treatment. The treated fruits were air-dried at 24 ± 1 °C, labeled and packaged into ventilated bags, then stored at 0 ± 1 °C and 90% ± 5% relative humidity for 4 months. Samples, each one containing two fruits, were taken every month during storage for quality evaluation and after analyses.

Physical and physicochemical assays

Firmness.

Firmness was measured on two opposite sides of the equatorial zone of the peeled fruit using a texture analyzer (Stevens-Lfra, U.K.) fitted with an 8-mm diameter cylindrical probe. A piece of skin ≈2 mm was removed. The penetration depth was 9 mm and the cross-head speed was 2 mm·s–1. Firmness was expressed as kg·cm–2.

Extraction and assay of PPO activities.

The PPO activity was performed using the method described by Murr and Morris (1974) with slight modification. One gram of frozen tissue was homogenized in 0.2 mol·L−1 sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) containing 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone centrifuged at 15,000 rpm for 20 min at 4 °C in a refrigerated centrifuge. PPO activity was determined in a 2-mL total reaction mixture containing 1 mL of aliquot of the supernatant, 200 μL of pyrocatechol solution (0.2 M), and 800 μL sodium phosphate buffer pH 6.2. One unit of PPO activity was defined as the amount of enzyme that caused the increase in absorbance of 0.01 at 410 nm in 1 min under the specified conditions.

Total phenolic contents.

Total phenolics were extracted and determined according to the method of Gutfinger (1981). Briefly, 5 mg of the dried fruit sample was placed directly into a solution of 5 mL of 80% methanol and was homogenized. Thereafter, samples were filtered and centrifuged at 14,000 rpm for 20 min and the supernatant was reserved. Each extract (1 mL) at concentration of 1 mg·mL–1 was mixed with 1 mL of 2% Na2CO3. After standing for 3 min, 0.2 mL of 50% Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was added to the mixture and allowed to stand for 30 min. The mixture was centrifuged at 13,400 × g for 5 min. The absorbance was measured at 750 nm and total phenolic content (TPC) was expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE).

Color.

Color was determined using digital imaging (Afshari-Jouybari and Farahnaky, 2011). Fruits were cut equatorially with a sharp knife and the cut surface was photographed in a chamber. Angle light with the horizontal surface of the images was 45°. After transferring the images to a computer, Photoshop image processing software (Adobe Photoshop.CS, Middle Eastern version) was performed after the recording of individual L*, a*, and b* parameters. L* is lightness and a* (–greenness to +redness) and b* (–blueness to + yellowness) are chromaticity coordinates. The a* and b* values were converted to chroma [C* = (a*2 + b*2)1/2] and hue angle [ = tan−1(b*/a*)].

Statistical analysis

Data were subjected to analysis of variance. Sources of variation were time of storage and treatments and the interaction of treatment × storage time. Mean comparisons were performed using the least significant difference test to examine if differences between treatments and storage time were significant at P < 0.05. All analyses were performed with SAS software package Version 9.1 for Windows (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).

Results and Discussion

Firmness.

Fruit firmness decreased during cold storage and the rate of decrease was significantly higher in control fruits compared with those treated with HW + Ca treatments (Fig. 1). The control fruits showed a decrease in firmness reaching up to 1.05 (kg·cm−2) after 120 d, whereas the firmness of samples treated with HW + Ca for 5, 10, and 15 min were 4.62, 3.58, and 5.05 (kg·cm−2), respectively. It has been noted that the positive effect of hot water treatment on kiwifruit firmness is the result of higher levels of Ca linked to pectate within the cell wall. In general, the effect of Ca on tissue firmness is explained by its complexing to the cell wall and middle lamella polygalacturonic acid residues imparting improvement of structural integrity (Morris, 1980). The beneficial effect of Ca treatments on firmness of fresh-cut products has been studied in some researches (Djioua et al., 2009; Luna-Guzmán et al., 1999; Rico et al., 2007).

Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1.

Changes in firmness of kiwifruit during 120 d storage at 0 °C. Whole fruits were non-treated (control), dipped in 2% CaCl2 solution, heat-treated at 47 °C for 5 min (H5), 10 min (H10), 15 min (H15) alone, or in combination with CaCl2 (2%) solution. Least significant difference is 0.57 at level of 5% of significance. Vertical bars represent sds of the means.

Citation: HortScience horts 50, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI.50.3.412

Heat treatments had a significant firming effect on kiwifruits stored at 0 °C for up to 120 d; however, there were not significant differences between 5 and 10 min (Fig. 1). The effect of heat treatment observed in this study was probably the result of the temporary suspension of enzyme synthesis involved in cell wall degradation (Obenland and Neipp, 2005).

Color.

Color parameters were significantly different between HW treatments and control. Hue angle was lowest in control fruits after 120 d storage (62.34) (Fig. 2). In general, chroma value decreased during storage as well as ripening, and it was lower in control (31.87) compared with HW + Ca-treated fruits (46.26, 45.87, and 45.52 for 5, 10, and 15 min, respectively) (Fig. 3). The application of heat treatment interrupts normal protein and chlorophyllase synthesis probably temporarily in heat-treated fruits (Brodl, 1989). According to other research, chroma values decrease significantly in control fruits during cold storage and shelf life, indicating less color intensity (Koukounaras and Sfakiotakis, 2007). Therefore, the results obtained in this work could be explained through the combined inhibitory effect of HW + Ca. Overall results indicated that HW + Ca treatments significantly suppressed color development of kiwifruit stored at 0 °C for 120 d compared with sole Ca treatments. Such finds suggested that HW + Ca treatments have a potential to act as an alternative color loss prevention method for long-term storage.

Fig. 2.

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Fig. 2.

Changes in hue of kiwifruit during 120 d storage at 0 °C. Whole fruits were non-treated (control), dipped in 2% CaCl2 solution, heat-treated at 47 °C for 5 min (H5), 10 min (H10), 15 min (H15) alone, or in combination with CaCl2 (2%) solution. Least significant difference is 2.01 at level of 5% of significance. Vertical bars represent sds of the means.

Citation: HortScience horts 50, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI.50.3.412

Fig. 3.

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Fig. 3.

Changes in chroma of kiwifruit during 120 d storage at 0 °C. Whole fruits were non-treated (control), dipped in 2% CaCl2 solution, heat-treated at 47 °C for 5 min (H5), 10 min (H10), 15 min (H15) alone, or in combination with CaCl2 (2%) solution. Least significant difference is 2.14 at level of 5% of significance. Vertical bars represent sds of the means.

Citation: HortScience horts 50, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI.50.3.412

Total phenolic compounds and PPO.

Control fruit exhibited a significant reduction in TPC during cold storage from the initial values (45.45 mg GAE/100 g) (Table 1). A sharp increase occurred during the first 30 d of storage (59.15 mg GAE/100 g) and decreased thereafter.

Table 1.

Changes in TPC (milligrams GAE/100 g) of kiwifruit during 120 d storage at 0 °C.z

Table 1.

Download Figure

After 120 d of storage, the TPC of control fruit was less than 30 mg GAE/100 g, whereas it was more than 48 mg GAE/100 g in the CaCl2 (2%) + HW (15 min)-treated fruit. Fruits dipped in HW + Ca showed a significant difference with respect to total phenolics, which was associated with lower PPO activity. PPO is involved in the oxidation of polyphenols into quinones (Liu et al., 2005). The combination of Ca and HW treatments had additive effects, but no significant difference was found between them. The PPO degradative activity was then partially inhibited by HW + Ca treatment, as will be later discussed. The authors suggested that the maintenance of cellular integrity conferred by CaCl2 diminished the possible contact of the enzyme with its substrate, resulting in a lower rate of TPC.

PPO activity increased sharply during first 2 months. There was no significant difference at Days 0 and 30 between different treatments, but HW treatment significantly prevented the increase in PPO activity compared with controls during storage (Fig. 4). PPO content of control samples declined significantly compared with treated samples. The fruits treated with Ca + HW had higher PPO activity than the other treatments or the control. The initial PPO activity of untreated kiwifruits was 0.52 (U·min–1·g–1 fresh weight). After 120 d, PPO in samples control was 1.48 (U·min–1·g–1 fresh weight), whereas those in treated samples with Ca + HW 5, 10, and 15 were 1.24, 1.11, and 1.05, respectively. Higher duration of HW + Ca treatment showed significantly least levels of PPO activity compared with all other treatments during 4-month storage period. Similar observations were reported by Jin et al. (2009) and Torres et al. (2010). PPO is not a very heat-stable enzyme at temperatures higher than 40 °C (Garcia and Barrett, 2002). Also, the effect observed in this study was probably the result of the temporary suspension of enzyme synthesis involved in cell wall degradation (Obenland and Neipp, 2005). Also, HW treatment solely inhibited the activity of PPO; however, the effect was not as good as HW + Ca treatment.

Fig. 4.

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Fig. 4.

Changes in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of kiwifruit during 120 d storage at 0 °C. Whole fruits were non-treated (control), dipped in 2% CaCl2 solution, heat-treated at 47 °C for 5 min (H5), 10 min (H10), 15 min (H15) alone, or in combination with CaCl2 (2%) solution. Least significant difference is 0.18 at level of 5% of significance. Vertical bars represent sds of the means.

Citation: HortScience horts 50, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI.50.3.412

Literature Cited

  • Afshari-JouybariH.FarahnakyA.2011Evaluation of Photoshop software potential for food colorimetryJ. Food Eng.106170175

  • AntunesM.PanagopoulosT.RodriguesS.NevesN.CuradoF.2004The effect of pre-and postharvest calcium applications on Hayward kiwifruit storage ability. V International Postharvest Symposium 682. p. 909–916

  • BarboniT.CannacM.ChiaramontiN.2010Effect of cold storage and ozone treatment on physicochemical parameters, soluble sugars and organic acids in Actinidia deliciosaFood Chem.121946951

  • Beirão-da-CostaS.SteinerA.CorreiaL.EmpisJ.Moldão-MartinsM.2006Effects of maturity stage and mild heat treatments on quality of minimally processed kiwifruitJ. Food Eng.76616625

  • BenitezM.AcedoA.JrJitareeratP.KanlavanaratS.2006Mango fruit softening response to postharvest heat treatment. IV International Conference on Managing Quality in Chains—The Integrated View on Fruits and Vegetables Quality 712. p. 811–816

  • BrodlM.R.1989Regulation of the synthesis of normal cellular proteins during heat shockPhysiol. Plant.75439443

  • CivelloP.M.MartínezG.A.ChavesA.R.AñónM.C.1997Heat treatments delay ripening and postharvest decay of strawberry fruitJ. Agr. Food Chem.4545894594

  • DjiouaT.CharlesF.Lopez-LauriF.FilgueirasH.CoudretA.Ducamp-CollinM.N.SallanonH.2009Improving the storage of minimally processed mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) by hot water treatmentsPostharvest Biol. Technol.52221226

  • FrancoJ.MeloF.GuilhermeR.NevesN.CuradoF.AntunesD.2006Taste panel quality evaluation of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit of different origins. VI International Symposium on Kiwifruit 753. p. 101–106

  • GarciaE.BarrettD.M.2002Preservative treatments for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: Science Technology and Market. p. 267–304

  • GutfingerT.1981Polyphenols in olive oilsJ. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.58966968

  • HopkirkG.HarkerF.HarmanJ.1990Calcium and the firmness of kiwifruitN. Z. J. Crop Hort. Sci.18215219

  • JinP.ZhengY.TangS.RuiH.WangC.Y.2009A combination of hot air and methyl jasmonate vapor treatment alleviates chilling injury of peach fruitPostharvest Biol. Technol.522429

  • KleinJ.D.LurieS.1990Prestorage heat treatment as a means of improving poststorage quality of applesJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.115265269

  • KoukounarasA.SfakiotakisE.2007Effect of 1-MCP prestorage treatment on ethylene and CO2 production and quality of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit during shelf-life after short, medium and long term cold storagePostharvest Biol. Technol.46174180

  • LaraI.GarcıaP.VendrellM.2004Modifications in cell wall composition after cold storage of calcium-treated strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) fruitPostharvest Biol. Technol.34331339

  • LiuH.JiangW.BiY.LuoY.2005Postharvest BTH treatment induces resistance of peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Jiubao) fruit to infection by Penicillium expansum and enhances activity of fruit defense mechanismsPostharvest Biol. Technol.35263269

  • Luna-GuzmánI.CantwellM.BarrettD.M.1999Fresh-cut cantaloupe: Effects of CaCl2 dips and heat treatments on firmness and metabolic activityPostharvest Biol. Technol.17201213

  • LurieS.1998Postharvest heat treatmentsPostharvest Biol. Technol.14257269

  • MignaniI.GreveL.C.Ben-ArieR.StotzH.U.LiC.ShackelK.A.LabavitchJ.M.1995The effects of GA3 and divalent cations on aspects of pectin metabolism and tissue softening in ripening tomato pericarpPhysiol. Plant.93108115

  • MorrisE.1980Physical probes of polysaccharide conformation and interactionsFood Chem.61539

  • MurrD.MorrisL.1974Influence of O2 and CO2 on o-diphenol oxidase activity in mushroomsJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.99155158

  • ObenlandD.M.NeippP.M.2005Forced hot air treatment of stone fruit to inhibit the development of malenessActa Hort.68211711178

  • PicchioniG.WatadaA.ConwayW.WhitakerB.SamsC.1995Phospholipid, galactolipid, and steryl lipid composition of apple fruit cortical tissue following postharvest CaCl2 infiltrationPhytochemistry39763769

  • PigaA.CaroA.D.PinnaI.AgabbioM.2003Changes in ascorbic acid, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in minimally processed cactus pear fruitsLWT-Food Science and Technology36257262

  • PoratR.PavoncelloD.PeretzJ.Ben-YehoshuaS.LurieS.2000Effects of various heat treatments on the induction of cold tolerance and on the postharvest qualities of ‘Star Ruby’ grapefruitPostharvest Biol. Technol.18159165

  • RicoD.Martin-DianaA.B.FriasJ.M.BaratJ.HenehanG.Barry-RyanC.2007Improvement in texture using calcium lactate and heat-shock treatments for stored ready-to-eat carrotsJ. Food Eng.7911961206

  • RouraS.PereyraL.Del ValleC.2008Phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in fresh cut lettuce subjected to the combined action of heat mild shocks and chemical additivesLWT-Food Science and Technology41919924

  • SerranoM.Martıìnez-RomeroD.CastilloS.GuillénF.ValeroD.2004Role of calcium and heat treatments in alleviating physiological changes induced by mechanical damage in plumPostharvest Biol. Technol.34155167

  • ShafieeM.TaghaviT.BabalarM.2010Addition of salicylic acid to nutrient solution combined with postharvest treatments (hot water, salicylic acid, and calcium dipping) improved postharvest fruit quality of strawberrySci. Hort.1244045

  • TorresL.M.A.R.SilvaM.A.GuaglianoniD.G.NevesV.A.2010Effects of heat treatment and calcium on postharvest storage of atemoya fruitsAlimentos e Nutrição Araraquara20359368

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Contributor Notes

To whom reprint requests should be addressed; e-mail ramezanian@shirazu.ac.ir.

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Article Figures

  • View in gallery

    Changes in firmness of kiwifruit during 120 d storage at 0 °C. Whole fruits were non-treated (control), dipped in 2% CaCl2 solution, heat-treated at 47 °C for 5 min (H5), 10 min (H10), 15 min (H15) alone, or in combination with CaCl2 (2%) solution. Least significant difference is 0.57 at level of 5% of significance. Vertical bars represent sds of the means.

  • View in gallery

    Changes in hue of kiwifruit during 120 d storage at 0 °C. Whole fruits were non-treated (control), dipped in 2% CaCl2 solution, heat-treated at 47 °C for 5 min (H5), 10 min (H10), 15 min (H15) alone, or in combination with CaCl2 (2%) solution. Least significant difference is 2.01 at level of 5% of significance. Vertical bars represent sds of the means.

  • View in gallery

    Changes in chroma of kiwifruit during 120 d storage at 0 °C. Whole fruits were non-treated (control), dipped in 2% CaCl2 solution, heat-treated at 47 °C for 5 min (H5), 10 min (H10), 15 min (H15) alone, or in combination with CaCl2 (2%) solution. Least significant difference is 2.14 at level of 5% of significance. Vertical bars represent sds of the means.

  • View in gallery

    Changes in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of kiwifruit during 120 d storage at 0 °C. Whole fruits were non-treated (control), dipped in 2% CaCl2 solution, heat-treated at 47 °C for 5 min (H5), 10 min (H10), 15 min (H15) alone, or in combination with CaCl2 (2%) solution. Least significant difference is 0.18 at level of 5% of significance. Vertical bars represent sds of the means.

Article References

Afshari-JouybariH.FarahnakyA.2011Evaluation of Photoshop software potential for food colorimetryJ. Food Eng.106170175

AntunesM.PanagopoulosT.RodriguesS.NevesN.CuradoF.2004The effect of pre-and postharvest calcium applications on Hayward kiwifruit storage ability. V International Postharvest Symposium 682. p. 909–916

BarboniT.CannacM.ChiaramontiN.2010Effect of cold storage and ozone treatment on physicochemical parameters, soluble sugars and organic acids in Actinidia deliciosaFood Chem.121946951

Beirão-da-CostaS.SteinerA.CorreiaL.EmpisJ.Moldão-MartinsM.2006Effects of maturity stage and mild heat treatments on quality of minimally processed kiwifruitJ. Food Eng.76616625

BenitezM.AcedoA.JrJitareeratP.KanlavanaratS.2006Mango fruit softening response to postharvest heat treatment. IV International Conference on Managing Quality in Chains—The Integrated View on Fruits and Vegetables Quality 712. p. 811–816

BrodlM.R.1989Regulation of the synthesis of normal cellular proteins during heat shockPhysiol. Plant.75439443

CivelloP.M.MartínezG.A.ChavesA.R.AñónM.C.1997Heat treatments delay ripening and postharvest decay of strawberry fruitJ. Agr. Food Chem.4545894594

DjiouaT.CharlesF.Lopez-LauriF.FilgueirasH.CoudretA.Ducamp-CollinM.N.SallanonH.2009Improving the storage of minimally processed mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) by hot water treatmentsPostharvest Biol. Technol.52221226

FrancoJ.MeloF.GuilhermeR.NevesN.CuradoF.AntunesD.2006Taste panel quality evaluation of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit of different origins. VI International Symposium on Kiwifruit 753. p. 101–106

GarciaE.BarrettD.M.2002Preservative treatments for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: Science Technology and Market. p. 267–304

GutfingerT.1981Polyphenols in olive oilsJ. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.58966968

HopkirkG.HarkerF.HarmanJ.1990Calcium and the firmness of kiwifruitN. Z. J. Crop Hort. Sci.18215219

JinP.ZhengY.TangS.RuiH.WangC.Y.2009A combination of hot air and methyl jasmonate vapor treatment alleviates chilling injury of peach fruitPostharvest Biol. Technol.522429

KleinJ.D.LurieS.1990Prestorage heat treatment as a means of improving poststorage quality of applesJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.115265269

KoukounarasA.SfakiotakisE.2007Effect of 1-MCP prestorage treatment on ethylene and CO2 production and quality of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit during shelf-life after short, medium and long term cold storagePostharvest Biol. Technol.46174180

LaraI.GarcıaP.VendrellM.2004Modifications in cell wall composition after cold storage of calcium-treated strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) fruitPostharvest Biol. Technol.34331339

LiuH.JiangW.BiY.LuoY.2005Postharvest BTH treatment induces resistance of peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Jiubao) fruit to infection by Penicillium expansum and enhances activity of fruit defense mechanismsPostharvest Biol. Technol.35263269

Luna-GuzmánI.CantwellM.BarrettD.M.1999Fresh-cut cantaloupe: Effects of CaCl2 dips and heat treatments on firmness and metabolic activityPostharvest Biol. Technol.17201213

LurieS.1998Postharvest heat treatmentsPostharvest Biol. Technol.14257269

MignaniI.GreveL.C.Ben-ArieR.StotzH.U.LiC.ShackelK.A.LabavitchJ.M.1995The effects of GA3 and divalent cations on aspects of pectin metabolism and tissue softening in ripening tomato pericarpPhysiol. Plant.93108115

MorrisE.1980Physical probes of polysaccharide conformation and interactionsFood Chem.61539

MurrD.MorrisL.1974Influence of O2 and CO2 on o-diphenol oxidase activity in mushroomsJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.99155158

ObenlandD.M.NeippP.M.2005Forced hot air treatment of stone fruit to inhibit the development of malenessActa Hort.68211711178

PicchioniG.WatadaA.ConwayW.WhitakerB.SamsC.1995Phospholipid, galactolipid, and steryl lipid composition of apple fruit cortical tissue following postharvest CaCl2 infiltrationPhytochemistry39763769

PigaA.CaroA.D.PinnaI.AgabbioM.2003Changes in ascorbic acid, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in minimally processed cactus pear fruitsLWT-Food Science and Technology36257262

PoratR.PavoncelloD.PeretzJ.Ben-YehoshuaS.LurieS.2000Effects of various heat treatments on the induction of cold tolerance and on the postharvest qualities of ‘Star Ruby’ grapefruitPostharvest Biol. Technol.18159165

RicoD.Martin-DianaA.B.FriasJ.M.BaratJ.HenehanG.Barry-RyanC.2007Improvement in texture using calcium lactate and heat-shock treatments for stored ready-to-eat carrotsJ. Food Eng.7911961206

RouraS.PereyraL.Del ValleC.2008Phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in fresh cut lettuce subjected to the combined action of heat mild shocks and chemical additivesLWT-Food Science and Technology41919924

SerranoM.Martıìnez-RomeroD.CastilloS.GuillénF.ValeroD.2004Role of calcium and heat treatments in alleviating physiological changes induced by mechanical damage in plumPostharvest Biol. Technol.34155167

ShafieeM.TaghaviT.BabalarM.2010Addition of salicylic acid to nutrient solution combined with postharvest treatments (hot water, salicylic acid, and calcium dipping) improved postharvest fruit quality of strawberrySci. Hort.1244045

TorresL.M.A.R.SilvaM.A.GuaglianoniD.G.NevesV.A.2010Effects of heat treatment and calcium on postharvest storage of atemoya fruitsAlimentos e Nutrição Araraquara20359368

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