Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) are relatively insect- and disease-resistant native plants and are commonly grown in the southeastern United States to diversify farm operations (Conner, 2009; Silva et al., 1994; Striegler et al., 2005; Walker et al., 2001). Muscadine berries have a unique flavor but are often thick-skinned and vary in color, shape, and size. The reported high nutraceutical content of muscadine grapes and products from muscadine grapes has increased consumer demand (Perkins-Veazie et al., 2012; Striegler et al., 2005). Major limiting factors of fresh-market production of muscadines include uneven ripening, short harvest season, fruit softening, seediness, and high perishability of the fruit during postharvest storage (James et al., 1999; Morris, 1980; Perkins-Veazie et al., 2012). Both public and private muscadine breeding programs are addressing these limiting factors through the development and evaluation of muscadine genotypes (selections and cultivars).
Muscadine maturity and type and percentage of dry/wet stem scars have been shown to impact texture (firmness/crispness), weight loss, decay, shriveling, browning, and leakage during storage (Ballinger and Nesbitt, 1982a, 1982b; Conner and Maclean, 2012; James et al., 1997, 1999; Lane, 1978; Lane and Flora, 1980; Smit et al., 1971). Muscadines can be successfully stored for 2 to 3 weeks (Perkins-Veazie et al., 2012; Takeda et al., 1982) under recommended conditions of 1 to 5 °C with 85% to 95% relative humidity (RH) (Silva et al., 1994; Takeda et al., 1983; Walker et al., 2001).
Muscadine grapes have one of the highest nutraceutical levels among fruit crops, but levels vary among genotypes (Greenspan et al., 2005; Marshall et al., 2012). Polyphenol concentrations usually increase in muscadines as fruit ripens (Lee et al., 2005) and are higher in wine than in unfermented juices (Musingo et al., 2001; Talcott and Lee, 2002). Muscadine grapes contain nutraceutical compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins, ellagic acid, resveratrol, and numerous ellagic-acid derivatives (Boyle and Hsu, 1990; Haung et al., 2009; Lee et al., 2005; Pastrana-Bonilla et al., 2003; Stringer et al., 2009; Talcott and Lee, 2002). The nutraceutical compounds in muscadines have demonstrated anticarcinogenic (Ector, 2001; Yi et al., 2005) and anti-inflammatory (Greenspan et al., 2005) activities and have also been shown to reduce levels of glucose, insulin, and glycated hemoglobin in people with diabetes (Banini et al., 2006).
The University of Arkansas muscadine breeding program was implemented in 2005 with the goal to improve fresh-market muscadine potential by advancing selections through traditional breeding efforts based on flower type, fruit size, time of ripening, winter-hardiness, and field evaluations. There is limited information on the physiochemical attributes of the University of Arkansas genotypes. The objective of this study was to expand on the work of Barchenger et al. (2014) and evaluate postharvest storage performance, physicochemical attributes, and initial nutraceutical concentrations of a wide range of muscadine genotypes including commercial cultivars and breeding selections to provide input for breeding programs in the development of new cultivars for commercial use.
BallingerW.E.NesbittW.B.1982aPostharvest decay of muscadine grapes (Carlos) in relation to storage temperature, time, and stem conditionAmer. J. Enol. Viticult.33173175
BaniniA.E.BoydL.C.AllenJ.C.AllenH.G.SaulsD.L.2006Muscadine grape products intake, diet and blood constituents of non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic subjectsNutrition2211371145
BarchengerD.W.ClarkJ.R.ThrelfallR.T.HowardL.R.BrownmillerC.R.2014Effect of field fungicide applications on storability, physicochemical, and nutraceutical content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) genotypesHortScience4913151323
ChoM.J.HowardL.R.PriorR.L.ClarkJ.R.2004Flavanoid glycosides and antioxidant capacity of various blackberry, blueberry, and red grape genotypes determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometryJ. Sci. Food Agr.8417711782
ChoM.J.HowardL.R.PriorR.L.ClarkJ.R.2005Flavonol glycosides and antioxidant capacity of various blackberry and blueberry genotypes determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometryJ. Sci. Food Agr.8521492158
ConnerP.J.MacLeanD.2013Fruit anthocyanin profile and berry color of muscadine grape cultivars and Muscadinia germplasmHortScience4812351240
EctorB.J.2001Compositional and nutritional characteristics p. 341–367. In: Basiouny F.M. and D.G. Himelrick (eds.). Muscadine grapes. ASHS Press Alexandria VA
EctorB.J.MageeJ.B.HegwoodC.P.CoignM.J.1996Resveratrol concentration in muscadine berries, juice, pomace, purees, seeds, and winesAmer. J. Enol. Viticult.475762
GreenspanP.GhaffarA.HargroveJ.L.HartleD.K.MayerE.P.BauerJ.D.PollockS.H.GangemiJ.D.2005Antiinflammatory properties of the muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia)J. Agr. Food Chem.5384818484
HagerT.J.HowardL.R.LiyanageR.LayJ.O.PriorR.L.2008Ellagitannin composition of blackberry as determined by HPLC-ESI-MS and MALD-TOF-MSJ. Agr. Food Chem.56661669
JamesJ.LamikanraO.DixonG.LeongS.MorrisJ.R.MainG.SilvaJ.1997Shelf-life study of muscadine grapes for the fresh fruit marketProc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.110234237
LeeJ.H.JohnsonJ.V.TalcottS.T.2005Identification of ellagic acid conjugates and other polyphenolics in muscadine grapes by HPLC-ESI-MSJ. Agr. Food Chem.5360036010
MageeJ.B.SmithB.J.RimandoA.2002Resveratrol content of muscadine berries is affected by disease control spray programHortScience37358361
MarshallD.A.StringerS.J.SpiersJ.D.2012Stilbene, ellagic acid, flavanol, and phenolic content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) cultivarsPharmaceutical Crops36977
MusingoM.N.KeefeS.F.O.LamikanraO.SimsC.A.BatesR.P.2001Changes in ellagic acid and other phenols in muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) juices and wines during storageAmer. J. Enol. Viticult.52109114
Pastrana-BonillaE.AkohC.C.SellappanS.KrewerG.2003Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of muscadine grapesJ. Agr. Food Chem.5154975503
PriorR.L.HoangH.GuL.WuX.BacchioccaM.HowardL.HampschwoodillM.HaungD.OuB.JacobR.2003Assays for hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACF1)] of plasma and other biological and food samplesJ. Agr. Food Chem.5132723279
SandhuA.K.GuL.W.2010Antioxidant capacity, phenolic content, and profiling of phenolic compounds in the seeds, skin, and pulp of Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine grapes) as determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSnJ. Agr. Food Chem.5846814692
SilvaJ.L.MarroquinE.HegwoodC.P.SilvaG.R.GarnerJ.O.Jr1994Quality changes in muscadines for table grapes during refrigerated storage in various packaging systems. Proc. Viticult. Sci. Symp. Fla. A and M. Univ176572
StrieglerR.K.CarterP.M.MorrisJ.R.ClarkJ.R.ThrelfallR.T.HowardL.R.2005Yield, quality, and nutraceutical potential of selected muscadine cultivars grown in southwestern ArkansasHortTechnology15276284
StringerS.J.MarshallD.A.Perkins-VeazieP.2009Nutraceutical compound concentrations of muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) grape cultivars and breeding linesActa Hort.841553556
TakedaF.Starnes SaundersM.SaundersJ.A.HattonT.T.1982Effects of prestorage treatment and storage temperature on incidence of decay and chemical composition in muscadine grapeProc. Fla. State. Hort. Soc.95109112
TakedaF.Starnes SaundersM.SavoyC.F.HattonT.T.1983Storageability of muscadines for use as fresh fruit. Proc. Viticult. Sci. Symp. Fl. A and M. Univ33133
ThrelfallR.T.MorrisJ.R.MeullenetJ.F.StrieglerR.K.2007Sensory characteristics, composition, and nutraceutical content of juice from Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine) cultivarsAmer. J. Enol. Viticult.58268273
U.S. Department of Agriculture2006United States standard for grades of muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) grapes. U.S. Dept. Agr. Washington DC
WalkerT.L.MorrisJ.R.ThrelfallR.T.MainG.L.LamikanraO.LeongS.2001Density separation, storage, shelf life, and sensory evaluation of ‘Fry’ muscadine grapesHortScience36941945
WangC.Y.1990Chilling injury of horticultural crops. 1st Ed. CRC Press Boca Raton FL