Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) and raspberry (R. idaeus), belonging to genus Rubus, family Rosaceae, are widespread perennial shrubs. They are known to contain naturally occurring polyphenol antioxidants that can regulate certain beneficial metabolic processes in mammals. Also, they have a high abundance of healthy antioxidants and nutrients such as anthocyanins, salicylic acid, ellagic acid, pectin, B and C vitamins, and fiber. In herbal medicine, they are reputed to be effective in regulating many health problems (Ahn et al., 1996; Carvalho et al., 2013; Heinonen, 2007; Sellappan et al., 2002).
The berries have been grown in many parts of world including the United States and Europe. Turkey is one of the leading countries in berry cultivation and especially blackberry has gained considerable importance during recent years. Consumption of wild berries used to be popular, especially in the Black Sea region; however, in recent years, cultivated berries are grown in large areas as a result of breeding studies. The Marmara and Black Sea regions are the most environmentally desirable areas for raspberry production (Onur, 1996). Adaptation performance of blackberry cultivars imported from the United States has shown variable performance in 16 regions of Turkey for 9 years (Agaoglu, 2003). Ipek et al. (2009) investigated genetic diversity of some blackberry cultivars (Arapaho, Black Satin, Bursa-1, Bursa-2, Bursa-3, Chester, Dirckson Thornless, Jumbo, Navaho and Loch Ness, and Boysenberry) using amplified fragment length polymorphic markers. In addition, 12 different raspberry cultivars: Summit, Heritage, Williamette, Meeker, Tulameen, Cola II, Newburgh, Canby, Rubin, Aksu Red, Bursa Dwarf, and Yalova-I, were tested for plant adaptation studies (Barut, 2000).
Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al., is a disease that affects many Rosaceous species with apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) being of the greatest economic significance (Bonn and van der Zwet, 2000). The most striking symptom is blackened cane tips, which bend over and die, resulting in a “shepherd’s crook” appearance. As the disease progresses down the cane, the veins of the leaf and portions of the leaf surrounding the midvein turn black. Entire leaves may wither and die. Typically, discoloration and dieback are limited to succulent young growth. Infected peduncles turn black and the young developing berries become brown, dry, and very hard. Entire fruit clusters may be infected, but generally a few berries in each cluster remain healthy. Losses result from berry necrosis and from tip dieback of primocanes (Schilder, 2007).
The disease was first observed in the late 1800s in raspberry (Ries and Otterbacher, 1977). Fire blight outbreaks are less common in Rubus species but can reach economically damaging levels under certain conditions (Braun et al., 1999). Lehman demonstrated that bacteria isolated from raspberry with fire blight symptoms infected wound-inoculated Rubus spp. canes, but not apple shoots, and that E. amylovora isolated from apple twigs did not infect raspberry canes (Lehman, 1933).
Management strategies in apple and pear have focused on timely applications of copper, antibiotics such as streptomycin, and removal of inoculum sources by pruning and the use of resistant cultivars (Beer, 1990). Of these options, cultivar resistance is the most desirable for its cost-effectiveness and long-term stability. Development of resistant cultivars requires advanced planning in breeding programs to incorporate and maintain a diverse range of resistance genes in parental lines, but little is known about raspberry and blackberry resistance to fire blight.
In Turkey, fire blight was observed the first time on blackberry (Rubus fruticosus cv. Chester) during 2008 and 2009 (Bastas and Sahin, 2012). Because of the sporadic nature of fire blight in Rubus, genetic resistance may be a better option for control than preventive sprays or predictive models. The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify resistance in currently available commercial raspberry and blackberry cultivars to assist growers in making appropriate selections for their disease situation and to aid breeders in the selection of parental plant material for breeding purposes.
AgaogluY.S.2003Past present and future of small fruits in Turkey. I. National Kiwifruit and Small Fruits Symposium Ordu. p. 1–13
AhnD.PuttD.KrestyL.StonerG.D.FrommD.HollenbergP.F.1996The effects of dietary ellagic acid on rat hepatic and esophageal mucosal cytochromes P450 and phase II enzymesCarcinogenesis17821828
AldwinckleH.BhaskaraR.M.V.NorelliJ.2002Evaluation of control of fire blight infection of apple blossoms and shoots with SAR inducers, biological agents, a growth regulator, copper compounds and other materialsActa Hort.590325331
BeerS.V.1990Fire blight p. 61–63. In: Jones A.L. and H.S. Aldwinckle (eds.). Compendium of apple and pear diseases. American Phytopathological Society Press St. Paul MN
BereswillS.PahlA.BellemannP.ZellerW.GeiderK.1992Sensitive and species-specific detection of Erwinia amylovora by polymerase chain reaction analysisAppl. Environ. Microbiol.5835223526
BonnW.G.van der ZwetT.2000Distribution and economic importance of fire blight p. 37–53. In: Vanneste J.L. (ed.). Fire blight: The disease and its causative agent Erwinia amylovora. CABI Publishing Cambridge MA
BraunP.G.HildebrandP.D.2005Infection, carbohydrate utilization and protein profiles of apple, pear and raspberry isolates of Erwinia amylovoraCan. J. Plant Pathol.27338346
BraunP.G.HildebrandP.D.2006Epidemiology of fire blight of floricane fruiting red raspberry caused by Erwinia amylovoraCan. J. Plant Pathol.289599
DuzgunesO.KesiciT.KavuncuO.GurbuzF.1987Statistical methods—II. Agriculture faculty publishes 1021 lesson book. Ankara University Press Ankara Turkey
HeimannM.F.JeffersS.N.1990Raspberry disorder: Fire blight. Univ. Wisc.–USDA Ext. Urban Phytonarian Ser. Bul. A3499
IpekA.BarutE.GulenH.IpekM.2009Genetic diversity among some blackberry cultivars and their relationship with boysenberry assessed by AFLP MarkersAfr. J. Biotechnol.848304834
JengR.S.SvircevA.M.MyersA.L.BeliaevaL.HunterD.M.HubbesM.2001The use of 16S and 16S–23S rDNA to easily detect and differentiate common Gram-negative orchard epiphytesJ. Microbiol. Methods446977
KacarB.KatkatV.1999Fertilizers and techniques of fertilizing. Vipas Press Bursa Turkey
KadoC.I.HeskettM.G.1970Selective media for isolation of Agrobacterium, Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas, and XanthomonasPhytopathology60969976
KimJ.H.BeerS.V.TaniiA.ZumoffC.H.LabyR.J.GustafsonH.L.AldwinckleH.S.1996Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains from different hosts and geographical areasActa Hort.411183186
KlementZ.RudolphK.SandsD.C.1990Methods in phytobacteriology. Akademia Kiado Budapest Hungary
LelliottR.A.SteadD.E.1987Methods for the diagnosis of bacterial diseases of plants. Blackwell Scientific Publications
LlopP.CarusoP.CuberoJ.MorenteC.LopezM.M.1999A simple extraction procedure for efficient routine detection of pathogenic bacteria in plant material by polymerase chain reactionJ. Microbiol. Methods372331
MaesM.OryeK.BobevS.DevreeseB.Van BeeumenJ.De BruynA.BussonR.HerdewijnP.MorreelK.MessensE.2001Influence of amylovoran production on virulence of Erwinia amylovora and a different amylovoran structure in E. amylovora isolates from RubusEur. J. Plant Pathol.107839844
McManusP.S.JonesA.L.1995Genetic fingerprinting of Erwinia amylovora strains isolated from tree-fruit crops and Rubus sppPhytopathology8515471553
MomolM.T.MomolE.A.LamboyW.F.NorelliJ.L.BeerS.V.AldwinkleH.S.1997Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains using random amplified polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPDs)J. Appl. Microbiol.82389398
MSU1986MSTATC Version 4.00. East Lansing MI
NissinenR.M.Van WijkK.J.YtterbergJ.A.ThannhauserT.BeerS.V.2002Weaponry revealed: Secreted proteins of E. amylovoraPhytopathology9259(abst.)
NorelliJ.L.AldwinckleH.S.BeerS.V.1984Differential host x pathogen interactions among cultivars of apple and strains of E. amylovoraPhytopathology74136139
OnurC.1996Raspberry growing. Citrus and Greenhouse Research Institute Antalya Turkey
RiesS.M.1997Fire blight p. 40–41. In: Ellis M.A. R.H. Converse R.N. Williams and B. Williamson (eds.). Compendium of raspberry and blackberry diseases and insects. American Phytopathological Society Press St. Paul MN
SchaadN.W.JonesJ.B.ChunW.2001Laboratory guide for identification of plant pathogenic bacteria. 3rd Ed. American Phytopathological Society Press St. Paul MN
SchilderA.2007Fire blight on raspberries and blackberries. 2014. <http://www.msue.anr.msu.edu/news/fire-blight-on-raspberries-and-blackberries>
SellappanS.AkohC.C.KrewerG.2002Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Georgia-grown blueberries and blackberriesJ. Agr. Food Chem.5024322438
StewartP.J.ClarkJ.R.FennP.2005Sources and inheritance of resistance to fire blight (E. amylovora) in eastern U.S. blackberry genotypesHortScience403942
Van der ZwetT.KeilH.L.1979Fire blight: A bacterial disease of rosaceous plants: U.S. Dept. Agr. Agr. Hdbk. No. 510
ZellerW.MeyerJ.1975Studies on fireblight in the German Federal Republic. I. Disease development on fruit trees and ornamental plants after natural attack and artificial inoculationNachrich. des Deut. Pflanzens.27161169