Anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Lind.) is one of the important cut flowers in the global tropical cut flower market (Pizano, 2005). Recently it has become a popular cut flower in Taiwan, and its cultivation acreage and yield have increased steadily (Chang et al., 2010; Peng, 2003). Nutrient supply is one of the key factors affecting the growth and yield of Anthurium cut flowers (Chang et al., 2010; Dufour and Guérin, 2005; Higaki et al., 1992; van Herk et al., 1998). The optimal nutrient supply depends on a number of factors including medium composition, species, growing stage, and climate (Cardarelli et al., 2010; Gómez-López et al., 2006; Mengel and Kirkby, 2001). Higaki and Poole (1978) and Higaki et al. (1992) studied fertilization effects on A. andraeanum Lind. ‘Ozaki’ with different media in Hawaii and found that the optimal nutrient supply for Anthurium depended on the medium. The nutrient solution formulae recommended by Dufour and Guérin (2005) and van Herk et al. (1998) for the cultivation of Anthurium were different. Dufour and Guérin (2005) and Higaki et al. (1992) also found that the effects of various nutrient solutions on Anthurium flower yield were different, although the observed difference in flower yield was less than one flower per year (Higaki et al., 1992) or two flowers per year (Dufour and Guérin, 2005).
Development and growth of Anthurium were significantly affected by seasonal fluctuations (Klapwijk and van der Spek, 1988; van Herk et al., 1998) and the nutrient requirements were dependent on climatic conditions (Fallovo et al., 2009; Mirdehghan and Rahemi, 2007; Rouphael et al., 2008). However, the interaction between fertilization management and seasonal fluctuations on growth, flower yield, and nutrient uptake of Anthurium during year-round cultivation is not clear.
Coir is an important substrate for economical horticultural cultivation and is used around the world as a result of its availability, low cost, and environmentally friendly characteristics (Handreck, 1993; Merrow, 1994; Noguera et al., 2000). Coir is used as a medium in the hydroponic cultivation of Anthurium in Taiwan (Chang et al., 2010) and is a new source for cut flower production around the world. However, no information is available concerning the nutrient requirements of Anthurium cultivated in coir under seasonal fluctuations. The objective of this study was to determine the influences of various N concentrations on the growth and nutrient uptake of Anthurium cultivated in coir under subtropical seasonal fluctuations.
Burns, I.G. 1992 Influence of plant nutrient concentration on growth rate: Use of a nutrient interruption technique to determine critical concentrations of N, P and K in young plants Plant Soil 142 221 233
Cardarelli, M., Rouphael, T., Rea, E., Salerno, A. & Colla, G. 2010 Nutrient solution concentration and growing season affect growth and quality of potted petunia in a recirculating subirrigation and drip-irrigation system J. Food Agr. Environ. 8 312 320
Chang, K.H., Wu, R.Y., Chuang, K.C., Hsieh, T.F. & Chung, R.S. 2010 Effects of chemical and organic fertilizers on the growth, flower quality and nutrient uptake of Anthurium andreanum, cultivated for cut flower production Sci. Hort. 125 434 441
Chapin F.S. III 1988 Ecological aspects of plant mineral nutrition, p. 161–191. In: Tinker, B. and A. Lauchli (eds.). Advances in plant nutrition. Praeger Publishers, New York, NY
Dufour, L. & Guérin, V. 2003 Growth, development features and flower production of Anthurium andreanum Lind. in tropical conditions Sci. Hort. 98 25 35
Dufour, L. & Guérin, V. 2005 Nutrient solution effects on the development and yield of Anthurium andreanum Lind. in the tropical soilless conditions Sci. Hort. 105 269 282
Fallovo, C., Rouphael, Y., Rea., E., Battistelli, A. & Colla, G. 2009 Nutrient solution concentration and growing season affect yield and quality of Lactuca sativa L. var. acephala in floating raft culture J. Sci. Food Agr. 89 1682 1689
Gómez-López, M.D., Fernández-Trujillo, J.P. & Baille, A. 2006 Cucumber fruit quality at harvest affected by soilless system, crop age and preharvest climatic conditions during two consecutive seasons Sci. Hort. 110 68 78
Goodwin, B.K. & Ker, A.P. 1998 Nonparametric estimation of crop yield distributions: Implications for rating group risk (GRP) crop insurance contracts Amer. J. Agr. Econ. 80 139 153
Handreck, K.A. 1993 Properties of coir dust, and its use in the formulation of soilless potting media Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 24 349 363
Higaki, T., Imamura, J.S. & Paull, R.E. 1992 N, P, and K rates and leaf tissue standards for optimum Anthurium andreanum flower production HortScience 27 909 912
Ker, A.P. & McGowan, P. 2000 Weather based adverse selection: The private insurance company perspective J. Agr. Resource Econ. 25 386 410
Marschner, H. 1995 Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 2nd Ed. Academic Press, London, UK
Mengel, K. & Kirkby, E.A. 2001 Principles of plant nutrition. 5th Ed. Academic Publishers, London, UK
Merrow, A.W. 1994 Growth of two subtropical ornamentals using coir (coconut mesocrap pith) as a peat substitute HortScience 29 1484 1486
Mirdehghan, S.H. & Rahemi, M. 2007 Seasonal changes of mineral nutrients and phenolics in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit Sci. Hort. 111 120 127
Murphy, J. & Riley, J.P. 1962 A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate n natural waters Anal. Chim. Acta 27 31 46
Noguera, P., Abad, M., Noguera, V., Puchades, R. & Maquieira, A. 2000 Coconut coir waste, a new and viable ecologically-friendly peat substitute Acta Hort. 517 279 286
Peng, F.C. 2003 The export of Anthurium in Taiwan, p. 43–58. In: Fang, S.R. (ed.). Anthurium. Taiwan Floriculture Development Association, Taipei, ROC [in Chinese]
Poole, R.T. & McConnell, K.D. 1971 Effects of shade levels and fertilization on flowering of Anthurium andraeanum ‘Nitta’ and ‘Kaumana’ Proc. Trop. Reg. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 15 189 195
Rouphael, Y., Cardarelli, M., Rea, E. & Colla, G. 2008 The influence of irrigation system and nutrient solution concentration on potted geranium production under various conditions of radiation and temperature Sci. Hort. 118 328 337
van Herk, M., van Koppen, M., Smeding, S., van der Elzen, C.J., van Rosmalen, N., van Dijk, J., Lont, A. & van Spingelen, J. 1998 Cultivation guide Anthurium. Anthura B.V., Bleiswijk, Holland.
Vincent, J., Leggett, J.E. & Egli, D.B. 1979 Cation accumulation by Glycine max. (L.) Merr. as related to maturity stages, p. 440. In: Harley, J.L. and R.S. Russell (eds.). The soil root interface. Academic Press, London, UK
Yoshida, S. 1972 Laboratory manual for physiological studies of rice. IRRI, Los Banos, CA
Zhao, D., Reddy, K.R., Kakani, V.G. & Reddy, V.R. 2005 Nitrogen deficiency effects on plant growth, leaf photosynthesis, and hyperspectral reflectance properties of sorghum Eur. J. Agron. 22 391 403