‘Lipan’ Pecan

Authors:
Tommy E. Thompson Pecan Genetics and Breeding Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 10200 FM50, Somerville, TX 77879

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L.J. Grauke Pecan Genetics and Breeding Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 10200 FM50, Somerville, TX 77879

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‘Lipan’ (Lēpän) is a new pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivar released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service. The Lipan are a Native American Apache tribe (Hodge, 1975). ‘Lipan’ was released because of its high nut quality, high yield potential, medium–early nut maturity, and scab disease (Fusicladium effusum G. Winter) resistance. ‘Lipan’ should be adapted to all pecan-growing areas of the world except the extreme northern production area of the United States. Pecans from this cultivar can be sold in-shell or shelled to produce a large proportion of halves and large pieces.

Origin

The USDA conducts the only national pecan breeding program. Crosses are made at Brownwood and College Station, TX (Grauke and Thompson, 1996; Thompson and Grauke, 1991; Thompson and Young, 1985). Seedling clones are established on their own roots or budded to pollarded trees for the initial 12-year testing phase at College Station. Superior clones and then enter the National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System (NPACTS), where they are tested across the U.S. pecan belt in cooperation with federal and state researchers and private growers. After several years, the best clones are given Native American tribe names and released to nurseries for propagation to sell to growers. USDA pecan cultivars are not patented, and after release, growers can propagate the new cultivars as much as desired.

Not all selections are tested at all NPACTS locations. ‘Lipan’, for instance, was extensively tested in replicated yield tests at Brownwood and Hempstead, TX. In addition, trees of this selection were grown and evaluated at several other nonreplicated NPACTS locations where various characteristics were monitored.

‘Lipan’, tested as selection 1986-3-624, is a progeny from a cross between the ‘Cheyenne’ and ‘Pawnee’ cultivars made by T.E. Thompson at Brownwood, TX, in 1986 (Fig. 1). ‘Cheyenne’ is a USDA cultivar released in 1970 and originated from a cross of the ‘Clark’ and ‘Odom’ cultivars (Madden, 1969). ‘Clark’ is a native pecan from San Saba County, TX. ‘Odom’ is a seedling from Ocean Springs (Newton County), MS. It may be a seedling of the ‘Russell’ cultivar (Thompson and Young, 1985). ‘Cheyenne’ was chosen as a parent based on its high nut quality and productiveness. ‘Pawnee’ is also a USDA cultivar released in 1984 (Thompson and Hunter, 1985). It is from the cross ‘Mohawk’ and ‘Starking Hardy Giant’. Mohawk is a USDA cultivar released in 1965 from the ‘Success’ and ‘Mahan’ cultivars (Thompson and Young, 1985). ‘Success’ originated in 1903 in Jackson County, MS, and ‘Mahan’ originated in Attala County, MS. ‘Mahan’ is a parent of six of the 29 released USDA cultivars, and ‘Success’ is a parent of four of these cultivars. ‘Starking Hardy Giant’ is a native variety from Carroll County, northern Missouri. ‘Pawnee’ was selected as a parent as a result of its early nut maturity, nut quality, and yellow aphid complex resistance.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Pedigree of the ‘Lipan’ pecan.

Citation: HortScience horts 47, 1; 10.21273/HORTSCI.47.1.121

Description

The ‘Lipan’ clone was initially grown and evaluated on its own roots at College Station, TX. On the basis of preliminary performance, extensive testing was started in Apr. 1996 by grafting an NPACTS yield and performance test at Brownwood, TX. This test had eight replications (single-tree) with a tree spacing of 9.1 × 10.7 m. Yield data indicate that ‘Lipan’ has adequate precocity, similar to ‘Pawnee’ (Table 1). ‘Lipan’ produced ≈70 kg of nuts per tree compared with 73 kg for ‘Pawnee’ and 66 kg for ‘Desirable’. When considering total kernel produced per tree over the life of the test, ‘Lipan’ produced ≈37 kg and ‘Pawnee’ produced ≈42 kg compared with 34 kg for ‘Desirable’. Number of nuts per cluster was 2.5 for ‘Lipan’, 3.3 for ‘Pawnee’, and 2.2 for ‘Wichita’. The alternate bearing tendency of ‘Lipan’ appears less than ‘Pawnee’, ‘Desirable’, and ‘Wichita’ (Table 1).

Table 1.

National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System (NPACTS) data from Brownwood, TX, comparing the yield of nuts of the ‘Lipan’ pecan with other cultivars.z

Table 1.

Average nut weight was 9.8 g for ‘Lipan’ compared with 7.9 g for ‘Pawnee’, 8.9 g for ‘Desirable’, and 7.4 g for ‘Wichita’ (Table 2). Nuts have ≈53% kernel. Kernels are cream to golden in color (Fig. 1; Table 2) with open, non-trapping dorsal grooves and a rounded dorsal ridge. The nut is elliptic with a slightly pointed apex and rounded base and is round in cross-section (Fig. 2). The shell suture is very strong and should be very resistant to splitting if harvest is delayed.

Table 2.

National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System (NPACTS) data from Brownwood, TX, comparing nut quality of ‘Lipan’ with other cultivars.z

Table 2.

‘Lipan’ has proven to be a consistent producer of high-quality nuts that mature and are ready to harvest ≈2 weeks after the early-maturing Pawnee cultivar and ≈2 weeks before ‘Desirable’ (around 4 Oct. at Brownwood) (Table 2). Like with most cultivars, fruit thinning of ‘Lipan’ in midsummer may be needed in some years. Time of spring budbreak is midseason (similar to ‘Pawnee’ and ‘Desirable’) (Table 3). ‘Lipan’ is protandrous with early pollen shed and midseason pistil receptivity, similar to ‘Creek’ and ‘Cheyenne’ and later than ‘Caddo’ (Fig. 3). ‘Lipan’ should be a good pollenizer for and well pollenized by ‘Choctaw’, ‘Kanza’, and ‘Wichita’. Preliminary data indicate that ‘Lipan’ is superior to ‘Wichita’ at Brownwood for scab resistance (Table 4). In a second NPACTS test with high scab pressure (Table 5), ‘Lipan’ showed significantly better scab resistance compared with ‘Pawnee’ and ‘Desirable’. ‘Lipan’ has not been adequately tested in the southeastern United States where different races of the scab organism probably exist, but results here indicate that ‘Lipan’ should have adequate scab resistance to be successfully grown in all pecan production areas.

Table 3.

National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System (NPACTS) data from Brownwood, TX, comparing the budbreak date of ‘Lipan’ with other cultivars.

Table 3.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Nuts and kernels of the ‘Lipan’ pecan.

Citation: HortScience horts 47, 1; 10.21273/HORTSCI.47.1.121

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Pollen shed and pistil receptivity for the ‘Lipan’ pecan and control cultivars at Brownwood, TX, in 2011. Type I = protandrous cultivars; Type II = protogynous cultivars.

Citation: HortScience horts 47, 1; 10.21273/HORTSCI.47.1.121

Table 4.

National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System (NPACTS) data from Brownwood, TX, comparing the scab resistance of ‘Lipan’ with other cultivars.

Table 4.
Table 5.

National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System (NPACTS) data from Hempstead, TX, comparing the fruit scab resistance of ‘Lipan’ with other cultivars.

Table 5.

Availability

‘Lipan’ was released on 22 July 2011. As stated, ‘Lipan’ is not patented and can be grafted and budded as much as desired by anyone. Graftwood will be supplied to nurserymen in late winter of 2012. The USDA does not have any trees for distribution. Genetic material of this release will be deposited in the National Plant Germplasm System where it will be available for research purposes, including development and commercialization of new cultivars. It is requested that appropriate recognition be made if this germplasm contributes to the development of a new cultivar.

Literature Cited

  • Grauke, L.J. & Thompson, T.E. 1996 Pecans and hickories 185 239 Janick J.A. & Moore J.N. Fruit breeding III nuts Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY

  • Hodge, F.B. 1975 Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico Rowman and Littlefield Totowa, NJ

  • Hunter, R.E. & Roberts, D.D. 1978 A disease grading system for pecan scab Pecan Quarterly 12 3 6

  • Madden, G.D. 1969 Cheyenne—New early bearer Pecan Quarterly 3 4 6

  • Pearce, S.C. & Dobersek-Urbanc, S. 1967 The management of irregularity in growth and cropping J. Hort. Sci. 42 295 305

  • Thompson, T.E. & Hunter, R.E. 1985 ‘Pawnee’ pecan HortScience 20 776

  • Thompson, T.E. & Grauke, L.J. 1991 Pecans and other hickories (Carya) 839 904 Moore J.N. & Ballington J.R. Genetic resources of temperate fruit and nut crops Intl. Soc. Hort. Sci. Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Thompson, T.E. & Young, E.F. Jr 1985 Pecan cultivars: Past and present Texas Pecan Growers Assn. College Station, TX

  • Pedigree of the ‘Lipan’ pecan.

  • Nuts and kernels of the ‘Lipan’ pecan.

  • Pollen shed and pistil receptivity for the ‘Lipan’ pecan and control cultivars at Brownwood, TX, in 2011. Type I = protandrous cultivars; Type II = protogynous cultivars.

  • Grauke, L.J. & Thompson, T.E. 1996 Pecans and hickories 185 239 Janick J.A. & Moore J.N. Fruit breeding III nuts Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY

  • Hodge, F.B. 1975 Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico Rowman and Littlefield Totowa, NJ

  • Hunter, R.E. & Roberts, D.D. 1978 A disease grading system for pecan scab Pecan Quarterly 12 3 6

  • Madden, G.D. 1969 Cheyenne—New early bearer Pecan Quarterly 3 4 6

  • Pearce, S.C. & Dobersek-Urbanc, S. 1967 The management of irregularity in growth and cropping J. Hort. Sci. 42 295 305

  • Thompson, T.E. & Hunter, R.E. 1985 ‘Pawnee’ pecan HortScience 20 776

  • Thompson, T.E. & Grauke, L.J. 1991 Pecans and other hickories (Carya) 839 904 Moore J.N. & Ballington J.R. Genetic resources of temperate fruit and nut crops Intl. Soc. Hort. Sci. Wageningen, The Netherlands

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, T.E. & Young, E.F. Jr 1985 Pecan cultivars: Past and present Texas Pecan Growers Assn. College Station, TX

Tommy E. Thompson Pecan Genetics and Breeding Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 10200 FM50, Somerville, TX 77879

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L.J. Grauke Pecan Genetics and Breeding Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 10200 FM50, Somerville, TX 77879

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Contributor Notes

Mention of a trademark, vendor, or proprietary product does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the USDA and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products that may also be suitable. A USDA employee prepared this article as part of his official duties. Copyright protection under U.S. copyright law is not available for such works, and there is no copyright to transfer. The fact that the private publication in which the article appears is itself copyrighted does not affect the material that is a work product of the U.S. Government, which can be freely reproduced by the public.

Research geneticist.

Research horticulturist.

To whom reprint requests should be addressed; e-mail tommy.thompson@ars.usda.gov.

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  • Pedigree of the ‘Lipan’ pecan.

  • Nuts and kernels of the ‘Lipan’ pecan.

  • Pollen shed and pistil receptivity for the ‘Lipan’ pecan and control cultivars at Brownwood, TX, in 2011. Type I = protandrous cultivars; Type II = protogynous cultivars.

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