Differential uptake of a nutrient element by various plant species or cultivars has been referred to by many authors (Damon and Rengel, 2007; Jiang, 2008; Rengel and Damon, 2008; Shuxin et al., 2000). Furthermore, differential distribution, especially of micronutrients, between cultivars of the same plant species is of great importance in cases of micronutrient deficiencies and toxicities. In cases of micronutrient toxicity, it is important to choose genotypes with low uptake and transport from root to shoot of the specific element, like for example happens with manganese (Mn) in Mn toxicity conditions. In that case, low transport of Mn from root to shoot, in many plant species, is the result of the oxidation of Mn2+ to Mn4+ (El Jaoual and Cox, 1998). In contrast to that, in cases of micronutrient deficiency, the chosen genotypes should have great uptake capacity and transport of the particular element from the root system to the leaves (Rengel, 2001). In addition to that, high internal nutrient use efficiency is also another property that one genotype should have under those conditions (Jiang, 2006; Jiang and Ireland, 2005).
For the olive tree, although it is considered a species with great capacity to survive and produce under low-fertility soils, almost nothing has been investigated so far about micronutrient absorption, distribution, and use efficiency as well as whether genotypic differences exist among olive cultivars concerning micronutrient absorption [especially Mn, iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn)] and nutrient use efficiency, which, for example, exist in some crop cultivars (Jiang, 2006, 2008; Rengel, 2001). For that purpose, two well-known, widely cultivated Greek olive cultivars (Koroneiki as an oil-producing cultivar and ‘Kothreiki’ as a dual-purpose one) were used in this study. ‘Koroneiki’ is resistant to drought and winds, whereas ‘Kothreiki’ is very resistant to cold and it can be cultivated up to 800 m altitude (Therios, 2005).
The aim of the present investigation was to find possible genotypic differences between the two previously mentioned olive cultivars in the absorption, distribution among various tissues, and use efficiency of Mn, Fe, and Zn in each of the three soils used. To have a better and global view of the mineral nutrition of these two olive cultivars in the three soils used, we also studied the absorption, distribution, and use efficiency of the macronutrients calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K). Three soils from different parent material (Marl, Gneiss schist., and Peridotite) and with different physicochemical properties were chosen as a medium for plant growth.
Alifragis, D.A. & Papamichos, N. 1995 Soil sampling and chemical analyses of forest soils and vegetative tissues [in Greek] Dedousi Publications Thessaloniki, Greece
Asrar, Z., Khavari-Nejad, R.A. & Heidari, H. 2005 Excess manganese effects on pigments of Mentha spicata at flowering stage Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 51 101 107
Chapin, F.S. & Van Cleve, K. 1991 Approaches to studying nutrient uptake, use and loss in plants 185 207 Pearcy R.W., Ehleringer J.R., Mooney H.A. & Rundel P.W. Plant physiological ecology—Field methods and instrumentation Chapman and Hall New York, NY
Chatzistathis, Th. & Alifragis, D. 2004 The influence of soil liming on the limitation of Mn and Cu toxicity, in Populus, Pseudoacacia, Junglans and Eucalyptus plantations [in Greek] 465 478 Proc. 10th Panhellenic Soil Science Symposium Volos, Greece 22–25 Sept. 2004
Damon, P.M. & Rengel, Z. 2007 Wheat genotypes differ in potassium efficiency under glasshouse and field conditions Aust. J. Agr. Res. 58 816 825
Ducic, T., Leinemann, L., Finkeldey, R. & Polle, A. 2006 Uptake and translocation of manganese in seedlings of two varieties of douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. viridis and glauca) New Phytol. 170 11 20
Jiang, W.Z. 2008 Comparison of responses to Mn deficiency between the UK wheat genotypes Maris Butler, Paragon and the Australian wheat genotype C8MM J. Integr. Plant Biol. 50 457 465
Jiang, W.Z. & Ireland, C.R. 2005 Characterization of manganese use efficiency in UK wheat cultivars grown in a solution culture system and in the field J. Agr. Sci. 143 151 160
Klute, M. 1986 Method of soil analysis. Part I—Physical and mineralogical methods 404 408 Klute A. Agron. Monograph No. 9 ASA, CSSA and SSSA Madison, WI 404 408
Loneragan, J.F. 1988 Distribution and movement of manganese in plants 113 124 Graham R.D., Hannam R.J. & Uren N.C. Manganese in soils and plants. Proc. of the International symposium on ‘Manganese in soils and plants’ Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht, The Netherlands
Maruyama, T., Higuchi, K., Yoshida, M. & Tadano, T. 2005 Comparison of iron availability in leaves of barley and rice Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 51 1037 1042
Papadakis, I.E. 2004 Reaction of Citrus trees to manganese [in Greek] Doctoral dissertation. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki, Greece
Quartin, V.M.L., Antunes, M.L., Muralha, M.C., Sousa, M.M. & Nunes, M.A. 2001 Mineral imbalance due to manganese excess in triticales J. Plant Nutr. 24 175 189
Shuxin, T.U., Jinghe, S., Zhifen, G., Ming, H. & Ping, Z. 2000 Genotypic variations in potassium absorption and utilization by amaranthus spp Pedosphere 10 363 372
Soil Taxonomy 1975 A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys 1st ed U.S. Department of Agriculture's Soil Survey Staff