Differential uptake of a nutrient element by various plant species or cultivars has been referred to by many authors (Damon and Rengel, 2007; Jiang, 2008; Rengel and Damon, 2008; Shuxin et al., 2000). Furthermore, differential distribution, especially of micronutrients, between cultivars of the same plant species is of great importance in cases of micronutrient deficiencies and toxicities. In cases of micronutrient toxicity, it is important to choose genotypes with low uptake and transport from root to shoot of the specific element, like for example happens with manganese (Mn) in Mn toxicity conditions. In that case, low transport of Mn from root to shoot, in many plant species, is the result of the oxidation of Mn2+ to Mn4+ (El Jaoual and Cox, 1998). In contrast to that, in cases of micronutrient deficiency, the chosen genotypes should have great uptake capacity and transport of the particular element from the root system to the leaves (Rengel, 2001). In addition to that, high internal nutrient use efficiency is also another property that one genotype should have under those conditions (Jiang, 2006; Jiang and Ireland, 2005).
For the olive tree, although it is considered a species with great capacity to survive and produce under low-fertility soils, almost nothing has been investigated so far about micronutrient absorption, distribution, and use efficiency as well as whether genotypic differences exist among olive cultivars concerning micronutrient absorption [especially Mn, iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn)] and nutrient use efficiency, which, for example, exist in some crop cultivars (Jiang, 2006, 2008; Rengel, 2001). For that purpose, two well-known, widely cultivated Greek olive cultivars (Koroneiki as an oil-producing cultivar and ‘Kothreiki’ as a dual-purpose one) were used in this study. ‘Koroneiki’ is resistant to drought and winds, whereas ‘Kothreiki’ is very resistant to cold and it can be cultivated up to 800 m altitude (Therios, 2005).
The aim of the present investigation was to find possible genotypic differences between the two previously mentioned olive cultivars in the absorption, distribution among various tissues, and use efficiency of Mn, Fe, and Zn in each of the three soils used. To have a better and global view of the mineral nutrition of these two olive cultivars in the three soils used, we also studied the absorption, distribution, and use efficiency of the macronutrients calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K). Three soils from different parent material (Marl, Gneiss schist., and Peridotite) and with different physicochemical properties were chosen as a medium for plant growth.
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Chatzistathis, Th. Alifragis, D. 2004 The influence of soil liming on the limitation of Mn and Cu toxicity, in Populus, Pseudoacacia, Junglans and Eucalyptusplantations [in Greek] 465 478 Proc. 10th Panhellenic Soil Science Symposium Volos, Greece 22–25 Sept. 2004
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Loneragan, J.F. 1988 Distribution and movement of manganese in plants 113 124 Graham R.D. Hannam R.J. Uren N.C. Manganese in soils and plants. Proc. of the International symposium on ‘Manganese in soils and plants’ Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht, The Netherlands
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