105th Annual Conference of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Orlando, FL, 21–24 July 2008: The following changes were made to the conference schedule after the Program and Abstracts issue [HortScience 43(4)] went to press.

in HortScience

2008 ASHS Industry Division Travel Grant—Teri Howlett, Colorado State University

New Exhibitors

Atlas Technologies—company representative: Justin Bothell Ag Biotech, Inc.—company representative: Mark Massoudi

P.O. Box 1325, 2191 San Juan Hollister Rd., San Juan Bau-tista, CA 95045-1325; phone: 831.635.0206; fax: (831) 635-0572; email:; website:

Ag-Biotech provides a variety of PCR-based technologies for agriculturally important trait-linked molecular markers for geno-typing, varietal protection, and expediting molecular breeding. Services include but are not limited to marker-assisted selection; DNA marker-assisted backcrossing; DNA fingerprinting and intellectual rights protection; DNA marker development; hybrid- and trait-purity analysis; genetic map construction.


2008 ASHS Industry Division Travel Grant—Teri Howlett, Colorado State University

New Exhibitors

Atlas Technologies—company representative: Justin Bothell Ag Biotech, Inc.—company representative: Mark Massoudi

P.O. Box 1325, 2191 San Juan Hollister Rd., San Juan Bau-tista, CA 95045-1325; phone: 831.635.0206; fax: (831) 635-0572; email:; website:

Ag-Biotech provides a variety of PCR-based technologies for agriculturally important trait-linked molecular markers for geno-typing, varietal protection, and expediting molecular breeding. Services include but are not limited to marker-assisted selection; DNA marker-assisted backcrossing; DNA fingerprinting and intellectual rights protection; DNA marker development; hybrid- and trait-purity analysis; genetic map construction.

Digital Processing Solutions, LLC—company representative: Yoni Fridman

305 Glen Cove Rd., Port Townsend, WA 98368; phone: (360) 385-3123; fax: (360) 379-5220

The DPS Professional Root Analyzer is software for the automatic measurement and analysis of roots in any digital image format. With minimal user interaction, it accurately detects and analyzes roots as narrow as a pixel. Output lists root number, length, diameter, area, volume, branch number, and angle.

Florida State Horticultural Society

Company representative changes

Springer: Jacco Flipsen

Spectrum Technologies: Aaron Johnson

Florida Automated Weather Network: Rick Lusher and Lee Staudt

Percival Scientific: Karl Lundy and Gary Powell

Changes by Date

Monday, 21 July

Oral Session 2: Biotechnology 1

Change in presenting author:

Clone S-RNase cDNAs and Establish CSP-PCR-RFLP System for Cultivars S-genotyping in Chinese Sand Pear

[Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nak.]—presenter: Donglin Zhang

Workshop 1: The Nuts and Bolts of High Tunnel Production and Manipulation for Specialized Applications

Presentation order changed as follows:

Improvement in Product Quality—Patricia Millner

Microenvironment Variations within the Tunnel and Their Effect on Growth and Development—*Chris Wien

Light Manipulation with Colored Shade Netting over Plants—*Robert Stamps

LED Lamps for Manipulating the Phytochrome Apparatus—*Gary Stutte

Oral Session 4: Culture & Management—Vegetable Crops 1

Note correction in the second sentence of the abstract (in bold):

Optimum Plot Size and Number of Replications for Watermelon Yield Trials—George Boyhan, Randy Hill, and Denny Thigpen

Three different methods were used to determine optimum plot size for watermelon yield. With a basic unit size of 6.68 m2, plotting the coefficient of variation (y-axis) against the basic units (x-axis), the maximum curvature of the hyperbola occurred at approximately 7–10 basic units. Computing Bartlett's chi-square for homogenity of variance for different plot sizes, no differences occurred between plot size with 7 basic units up to a plot size with 35 basic units, suggesting that 7 basic units would be sufficient for analysis. Using Hathaway's method for determining optimum plot size and number of replications with a threshold of a true difference of 20% of the mean or less, combinations of 14 basic units and 3 replications, 10 basic units and 4 replications, or 7 basic units and 5 replications would fit the criteria. True differences of 16%, 17%, and 20% of the mean were calculated for each, respectively.

Wednesday, 23 July

Oral Session 27: Crop Physiology Vegetable Crops

The following abstract was inadvertently omitted in print:

Environmental Stress: Scion and Rootstock Effects on ABA-mediated Plant Growth Regulation and Salt Tolerance of Acclimated and Unacclimated Potato Genotypes

*Masoomeh Etehadnia, D.R. Waterer, and K.K. Tanino, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Tolerance of salt stress in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) increased when the plants were pre-exposed to low concentrations of salt (salt acclimation). This acclimation was accompanied by increased levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in the shoot. To further study the role of roots and shoots in this acclimation process, reciprocal grafts were made between salt-tolerant (9506) and salt-sensitive ABA-deficient mutant and its ABA-normal sibling potato genotype. The grafted plants were acclimated with 75 or 100 mM NaCl for 3 weeks and then exposed to 150–180 mM NaCl, depending on the salt tolerance of the root-stock. After 2 weeks’ exposure to the salt stress, the acclimated and unacclimated plants were compared for physiological and morphological parameters. The response to the salt stress was strongly influenced by the rootstock. The salt tolerant 9506 rootstock increased the salt tolerance of scions of both the ABA-deficient mutant and its ABA-normal sibling. This salt tolerance induced by the rootstock was primarily modulated by salt acclimation and manifested in the scion via increased plant water content, stem diameter, dry matter accumulation, stoma-tal conductivity, osmotic potential and associated with alleviating leaf necrosis. There was also a pronounced scion effect on the rootstock. Using 9506 as a scion significantly increased root fresh and dry weight, stem diameter as well as root water content of ABA-deficient mutant rootstocks. Specific evidence for the role of exogenous ABA on the enhancement of water status in grafted plants under salt stress beyond that of grafting alone was found. This was verified by more positive stomatal conductivity and upward water flow in ABA-treated grafted and non-grafted plants and the absence of upward water flow in non-treated grafted plants through NMR imaging. Grafting using either salt tolerant scions or rootstocks with inherently high ABA levels may positively modify subsequent responses of the plant under salt stress.

Workshop 18: Horticulture in Asia: Opportunities and Challenges for Collaborative Research and Education

The following presentation was added to the workshop:

Horticulture in Korea: Present and Future—Ki Sun Kim and Seung Koo Lee, Department of Plant Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Korea (email:

Korea is a small country located far-east of Asia, encompassing 99,461 km2 land (222,154 km2 including North Korea) and population of 47.6 million, with average temperature and rainfall of 8 to 27 °C and 1300 mm, respectively. As the economy jumped after the Economic Development Plan since early 1960s, the value and importance of horticultural production has become more important. In 2006, horticultural production is 35% of total agricultural production. Vegetable crops, fruits, and ornamentals are 65.3%, 26.3%, and 8.4% of horticultural production, respectively. Most vegetables and flowers are produced under plastic house. Pepper is the most important horticultural crop because it is the main element of kimchi, which most Koreans consume every day. Since the cost of land, labor, and now fuel is increasing, the increase in production cost is becoming a major problem in horticultural production, whereas the market price stays the same. FTA is threatening the horticultural farmers also. Vegetables, fruits, and flowers are expected to be imported from China and Chile, etc. However, Korean researchers and growers are trying to cope with this situation through an efficient marketing system, innovative breeding, high-quality products, and energy-saving strategies. Thus, the future of Korean horticulture is still promising and Korea wants to take the leading role in Asian society. In Dec. 2008, the First Asian Horticultural Congress will be held in Jeju, Korea, where more collaboration among Asian countries should be discussed.

Workshop 24: Established and Emerging Tropical Fruits: New Cultivars and New Species for the U.S. Consumer

The entire abstract is printed below.

Commercialization of Mangosteen in the United States: Domestic Cultivation, Imports and Marketing—*David Karp, University of California, Riverside

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is legendary for its juicy, delicate flesh and sweet-tart flavor, but commercial cultivation and marketing in the U.S. started just recently. Native to Indonesia and Malaysia, mangosteen trees require a fully tropical climate and cannot be grown commercially in the contiguous U.S.; but in the 1990s, small plantings were established in Hawaii and Puerto Rico (30 and 4 ha, respectively), some of which are beginning to bear fruit. Mangosteen orchards also have been planted in Mexico and Central America. Because fresh mangosteens can harbor quarantine pests, the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) until recently prohibited their being brought from the main producing countries in Southeast Asia or from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland. In June 2007 APHIS published a final rule allowing the importation of fresh mangosteen irradiated at a minimum dose of 400 gy from Thailand, which leads the world in production (207,300 metric tons in 2005). When Thai imports by air shipment began in Jan. 2008, the fruit appeared to tolerate this dose well, and the wholesale price in Los Angeles was $15 per kilogram; larger volumes and lower prices are anticipated for the main Thai season, April to June. Retailers selling the fruit included both Asian and mainstream supermarkets, although irradiation deterred some organically oriented stores. Shipments of fresh mangosteen from Puerto Rico, which do not require irradiation, started on a small scale in Aug. 2007. So far, Hawaiian growers have marketed chiefly to local hotels, restaurants, and cruise ships, but APHIS is expected to publish in 2008 a final rule allowing export to the mainland of mangosteen irradiated at a minimum dose of 150 gy, if the fruit is treated with a postharvest dip of warm soapy water and brushing, or if it originates from an orchard previously treated with a broad-spectrum insecticide; if these conditions do not apply, a minimum dose of 400 gy is required. Major postharvest disorders that present challenges for fresh sales include gamboge, a bitter yellow resin that seeps into the pulp, and translucent flesh, which can be caused by fluctuating rains and high humidity. Researchers are trying to overcome the crop's primary horticultural challenge, a prolonged juvenile period of 8 to 10 years or more.

Thursday, 24 July

Poster Session: Environmental Stress

Change in presenting author:

(278) Modest Increases in Growth Light Level Protect Photosynthesis and Plant Growth during Boron Stress in Geraniums—presenter: Jonathan Frantz

Oral Session 34: Viticulture and Small Fruits/Physiology

Change in presenting author:

Effect of Training System on Grapevine Vigor, Yield, and Fruit Composition in the Lower Midwestern U.S.—presenter: Patsy Wilson

Workshop 26: The Role for Consumer Horticulture in eXtension

Complete information for this workshop was inadvertently omitted in print. Titles, presenters, and abstracts appear below:

eXtension Initiative: Current Status and Future Prospects—*Richard Durham, University of Kentucky eXtension (pronounced e-eXtension)——is the nation's first 24/7/365 collaboratively built non-formal education and information system available on any Internet-ready device providing objective research-based information and learning opportunities. It is built on the firsthand knowledge and practice of experts in a particular field of study. When someone gathering knowledge or looking for answers to a particular problem or life question accesses eXtension they can use a number of features to locate their information. Presently, 16 communities of practice (CoP) have public content available. There are currently another 10 CoPs working to publish content in the near future. Current and future features include: Basic Information, which provides brief explanations of a specific topic, or a complete publication that pulls together the best-of-the-best information from across the land-grant university system and may also include learning modules featuring additional, detailed information; Frequently Asked Questions/Ask an Expert, which enables searches by keyword or by typing specific questions—users can ask experts questions and the expert will respond with an appropriate answer; News & Calendar provide timely updates as well as current CoP hot topics; Online Discussions & Chats with experts on hot topics or general information; Decision Tools provide interactivity to help guide the user through an appropriate and precise decision making process; Streaming Instructional Videos directly to the desktop or other learning devices to enhance the user experience; Certificate Courses will facilitate user enrollment, testing, and tracking of fully credited certifications, eXtension is currently developing a new strategic plan targeted toward the future, eXtension recognizes the ever-changing nature and increasing expectations of web-based business models and will emphasize practicality, creativity, and cost efficiency in the new strategic plan. Several critical success factors have been identified and will be crucial as we move forward in identifying innovative ways to develop content and applications as we work side by side with the Cooperative Extension and the Land Grant University System.

The eXtension Consumer Horticulture FAQ/Ask an Expert Application—*Richard Durham and Candace Harker, University of Kentucky

Questions related to gardening and other aspects of consumer horticulture have been estimated to account for approximately 50% of the requests for information made to county Extension offices. The frequently asked questions/ask an expert applications (FAQ/AAE) of eXtension are meant to increase the efficiency by which information can flow from the local expert to the local user. The initial FAQ database in eXtension has been populated with more than 23,000 draft questions originating from preexisting information from Minnesota (11,700 questions), Texas (6500), Colorado (3800), and Kentucky (1300). The current (Apr. 2008) Consumer Horticulture/Garden, Lawns and Landscapes public database contains more than 1200 FAQ with more being continually added. These FAQ are searchable by public users of eXtension. Users may search by keyword or tag and are also prompted by links to preexisting information when queries are made to the AAE application. When public questions are submitted to AAE, a network of local Extension Master Gardeners, Extension Agents/Educators, and state/regional Extension specialists, provide locally specific answers. A snapshot of activity in the eXtension AAE system for Jan.-Mar. 2008 indicates that for eXtension as a whole, 8235 FAQ were viewed and 478 submitted questions were answered. For horticulture, 8235 FAQ were viewed and 258 submitted questions were answered. The average response time for answering incoming questions in horticulture was 1.36 days during Mar. 2008. These data would support the estimate that -50% of Extension questions are related to horticulture and would also suggest that the FAQ/AAE system provides an effective/ efficient tool for providing locally specific information.

Gardens, Lawns, and Landscapes: New National Gardening Website in eXtension—*Mary Hockenberry Meyer and Karen Jeannette, University of Minnesota

Gardening recommendations from Extension services in land grant universities across the country have been compiled to create the Gardens, Lawns, and Landscapes site in the new national eXtension program. Consumer Horticulture is one of 13 Community of Practice (CoP), or topic areas, in eXtension that was launched nationally on 21–22 Feb. 2008 in Washington, DC, at the USDA Agriculture Outlook Forum. The Gardens, Lawns and Landscapes basic content is divided into 10 categories: Trees and Shrubs, Flowers, Fruit, Vegetables, Indoor Plants, Soils and Composting, Lawns, Landscaping, Pests, and Master Gardener information; and has nearly 500 articles from states throughout the US. All authors and their universities are cited and credited. Other site features are Garden Myths, Garden Math and Garden Calendars, for all sections of the US with some sites from other countries. Future content information will include solutions for specific gardening problems and new updated information on current gardening issues. This presentation will highlight the development of the basic content section of the Gardens, Lawns and Landscapes website. See for more information.

Engaging Master Gardeners in eXtension—*Angela O'Callaghan, University of Nevada, Reno; and Lelia Kelly, Mississippi State University

Extension Master Gardener (EMG) volunteers have played a significant role in delivery of local and state Extension programs and services throughout the United States. From the beginning, eXtension's Consumer Horticulture Community of Practice has sought to engage EMGs in its activity. This is most evident in the use of EMGs as experts or responders in the Ask an Expert application—a feature that allows users to submit questions that are answered via email from local Extension personnel. This presentation will report the current status of engagement of EMG in eXtension and discuss other possible ways they may be involved in the future.

Workshop 27: International Consulting Opportunities in Organic Horticulture

Two additional speakers were added and the order of presentation changed as follows:

International Organic Consultancies Lead to Mutual Benefits— *Kathleen Delate

Short and Long-term International Assignments in Organic and Sustainable Horticulture—*Carl Motsenbocker

Added: Development of an Organic Vegetable Program at AVRDC—The World Vegetable Center—Peter Juroszek, *Manuel Palada, Chin-hua Ma, Hsing-hua Tsai, Deng-lin Wu

AVRDC—The World Vegetable Center has initiated a research and development program to improve organic vegetable production in the tropics. The Organic Vegetable Program is located at the center's headquarters in the tropical southwest of Taiwan. Major program goals are to: 1) reduce farmers’ reliance on pesticides, and 2) open new income opportunities for resource-poor farmers. A 6-ha field has been managed organically for more than 3 years, adhering to the Production Standards for Organic Agricultural Products—Crops of Taiwan. An agroforestry plot of about 1 ha for the intercropping of vegetables with tropical fruit trees also has been established. About 30 different vegetable species have been grown organically for demonstration and research. We assessed yield and fruit quality, soil fertility management, and the economic benefits of including vegetables in agroforestry systems. We also conducted evaluations of selected cultivars under organic farming conditions. Several field crops were included in the program to gain experience for future whole-farm research and development, as many farmers in developing countries also raise rice, sweet potato, and sweet corn in addition to vegetables. Initial findings indicate high-input organic vegetable production methods achieved yields and qualities comparable with conventional farming systems. Under conditions of high biotic and abiotic stress, low-input organic vegetable production did not achieve similar benchmarks. However, low-input organic vegetable production has significant value for identifying superior germplasm that can be adapted to produce under various stress conditions. Knowledge generated from these studies will serve as a base for collaborative research and development projects with AVRDC's regional and international partners.

Developing a Sustainable Seed System in Malawi—*Carol Miles

Exploring, Explaining and Conserving Tropical Plants—A World of Natural Opportunity—*Richard Campbell and James Shrefler

Organic Opportunities in Conventional Contexts: Experiences with Tropical Root Crops and Tropical High Tunnels—*Ted Carey

Added: Consulting Experiences with Organic Vegetable Growers in Esteli, Nicaragua—*Juan Diaz-Perez, Dept. of Horticulture, UGA-Tifton Campus, Tifton, GA

Nicaragua is among the countries with the lowest gross national product in Latin America. The Agricultural Program Association (Asociacion Programa Agricola) San Nicolas in Esteli, Nicaragua, is a nonprofit association founded in 1996 as a way to improve poor families’ income and is promoted by the Parish of San Nicolas. Its main objective is to support the poorest communities of San Nicolas, improving life standard levels of farmers, increasing productivity using the appropriate technologies. There are 25 workers: 15 men and 10 women working for the association. The activities of the association include community organization, provision of technical assistance and technological validations, and the production of organic vegetables and matured cheeses (Swiss type). The objectives of the consulting assignment were to help develop a production management plan for organic vegetables and improve IPM practices. The tasks performed consisted of visits to farmers and training of farmers and local technical personnel. Organically produced vegetables were of acceptable quality, although their production costs were higher and yields and quality (produce size) were lower compared to those of vegetables produced through conventional methods (non-organic, with high usage of pesticides and fertilizers). Limited access to funding and marketing of produce were among the main challenges limiting the success of the growers’ association. Overall, the visit to this rural community of Esteli, Nicaragua, was very enriching both professionally and as a life experience.

Horticultural Opportunities in Southern Africa with AS-

NAPP—* William Sciarappa and Jim Simo

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