In several regions of Mexico, the presence of wild grapevines has been reported (Franco-Mora et al., 2007, 2008; Martínez et al., 2007). However, as observed in other countries such as France, Spain, and Japan, the number of wild genotypes seems to decrease attributable, at least in part, to human disruption of their natural habitat and the use of few commercial cultivars and rootstocks (Boursiquot, 2000; Martí et al., 2006; Motosugi et al., 2007; Ocete et al., 2008; Santiago et al., 2008). Few countries have started to protect wild grapevine populations; however, Spain has an interesting program for the protection of V. vinifera L. spp. silvestris and other traditional cultivars from direct and indirect human activities (Navarro et al., 2008; Ocete et al., 2008; Santiago et al., 2008). In an attempt to contribute to the conservation of the diversity in the genus Vitis in Mexico, a national program was initiated in 2005 aimed at the collection and description of wild grapevine ecotypes. In the state of Puebla in central Mexico, between 2005 and 2007, more than 200 grapevines were located and four main regions were described and named Totonacapan, Atlixco, Teziutlán, and Tehuacán (Franco-Mora et al., 2008). Plants in those three former regions were found growing on mountains, hills, valleys, and near small riverbanks, sharing the environment with Citrus, Vanilla, Zea mays L., Sacharum officinarum L., Annona cherimola Mill., and several other species. Successfully propagated plants are conserved in three germplasm gardens located in Toluca, México; Huatusco, Veracruz; and Teziutlán, Puebla (Cruz, 2007; Franco-Mora et al., 2007, 2008). Native people report using these plants for the consumption of fresh berries, preparation of jelly, drinking shoot water, and, interestingly, the use of leaves to prepare tea for treating cardiovascular diseases (Franco-Mora et al., 2008). Similar uses have been reported in Brazil, China, Japan, and Spain (Camargo, 2000; Huang and Lin, 1999; Li et al., 2006; Lu, 2005; Martí et al., 2006; Navarro et al., 2008; Ocete et al., 1997, 2008; Oshima and Kamijou, 1995; Santiago et al., 2008).
It has been shown that characterization of the morphological, biochemical, or molecular traits of Vitis genetic resources might help in the development of horticulture, pharmaceutical, and other industries (Lu, 2005). In Spain, native and commercial grapevines have been characterized by morphological and biochemical description as well as molecular studies, and these methods have been shown to be complementary (Asencio et al., 2002; Martí et al., 2006; Santiago et al., 2008). Also in Spain, a combination of morphological characterization and testing of susceptibility to pests and diseases was used to describe populations of V. vinifera spp. silvestris (Arroyo-García et al., 2006). After the formation of a Vitis germplasm collection at the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEMex), Toluca, state of Mexico, one of the main goals is the complete description, i.e., morphological and molecular, of its accessions. Thus, the present research is an initial study aimed at the vegetative characterization of the state of Puebla native grapevine resources and was conducted to assess vegetative diversity and vegetative relationship among 34 Vitis accessions growing in a germplasm garden in Toluca, Mexico. Correct identification of these genotypes is necessary for their inscription into national and international organisms related to the protection of the biodiversity of plants.
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Arroyo-García, R. Ruíz-García, L. Bolling, L. Ocete, R. López, M.A. Arnold, C. Ergul, A. Söylemezoğlu, G. Uzun, H.I. Cabello, F. Ibáñez, J. Aradhya, M.K. Atanassov, A. Atanassov, I. Balint, S. Cenis, J.L. Constantini, L. Goris-Lavets, S. Grando, M.S. Klein, B.Y. McGovernn, P.E. Merdinoglu, D. Pejic, L. Pelsy, F. Primikirios, N. Risovannaya, V. Roubelakis-Angelakis, K.A. Snoussi, H. Sotiri, P. Tamhankar, S. This, P. Troshin, L. Malpica, M. Lefort, F. Martínez-Zapater, J.M. 2006 Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Mol. Ecol. Vitis viniferaL. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms 15 3707 3714
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Navarro, S. León, M. Roca-Pérez, L. Boluda, R. García-Ferriz, L. Pérez-Bermúdez, P. Gavidia, I. 2008 Characterisation of Bobal and Crujidera grape cultivars, in comparation with Tempranillo and Cabernet Sauvignon: Evolution of leaf macronutrients and berry composition during grape ripeningFood Chem. 108 182 190
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