Cold damage to grapes is a worldwide concern but is especially prominent in cool climates. A great deal of research has been conducted to document the types of injuries that can occur as a result of frost and freeze events (Fennell, 2004; Goffinet, 2001; Wample et al., 2001). Injury to the vine trunk also facilitates the systemic movement of Agrobacterium vitis and the formation of crown gall from endophytic infections with the bacterium (Burr and Otten, 1999). The climate of the inland Pacific Northwest is characterized by long, warm sunny days during the summer; large diurnal temperature fluctuations throughout spring, summer, and fall; and cold to freezing temperatures in the winter (http://weather.wsu.edu). Thus, there is potential for cold injury to grape from fall through the spring corresponding to the harvest, dormant, and early growth stages of the crop. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the potential risks and possible protection methods for grapes in Washington state, where there are over 12,000 ha of wine and 10,000 ha of juice grapes in production (National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2007).
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