In the area of controlled environment agriculture (CEA), one of the most commonly discussed topics is that of lighting. The lighting system is generally the most expensive component of a CEA facility in terms of upfront costs as well as ongoing expenses (electricity use as well as replacement lamps). Naturally, advances in lighting technology are of great interest to the CEA community for these very reasons. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are the most recent lighting technology to enter the CEA arena and have great potential to improve performance and reduce the overall cost of controlled environment lighting.
Craford, M.G., N. Holonyak, and F.A. Kish. 2001. In pursuit of the ultimate lamp. Sci. Amer. 284:63–67.
Lighting Design Lab. 2008. Introduction to LED lighting. Mar. 2008. <http://lightingdesignlab.com/articles/LED_fund/intro_ledfund.htm>.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 2008. Mar. 2008. <http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/researchAreas/leds.asp>.
U.S. Dept. of Energy. 2008. Using LEDs for general illumination. Mar. 2008. <http://www.netl.doe.gov/ssl/usingLEDs/index.htm>.
Zukauskas, A., M.S. Shur, and R. Gaska. 2002. Introduction to solid state lighting. Wiley, New York, NY.
Drennen, T., R. Haitz, and J. Tsao. 2001. A market diffusion and energy impact model for solid-state lighting. Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2001–2830J. August.
Nakamura et al. 1996. Light emitting gallium nitride-based compound semiconductor device. U.S. Patent 5,578,839, filed Nov. 17, 1993 and issued Nov. 26, 1996.
U.S. Dept. of Energy 2005 Mar. 2008 <http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_home/lighting_daylighting/index.cfm/mytopic=12030>