Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 44

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  • 1 Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service 3420 NW Orchard Avenue Corvallis, OR 97330
  • 2 Department of Horticulture, Plant Science 316 University of Arkansas Fayetteville, AR 72701

Crop Listingsz: Almond, Almond Rootstock, Apple, Apricot, Apricot Rootstock, Blackberry, Blueberry, Cherry Rootstock, Cherry—Sweet, Currant, Grape, Hazelnut, Nectarine, Pawpaw, Peach, Peach Rootstock, Pear—Asian, Pear—European, Pecan, Persian Walnut, Plum and Plum Hybrids, Plum Rootstock, Raspberry, Strawberry

Abstract

Crop Listingsz: Almond, Almond Rootstock, Apple, Apricot, Apricot Rootstock, Blackberry, Blueberry, Cherry Rootstock, Cherry—Sweet, Currant, Grape, Hazelnut, Nectarine, Pawpaw, Peach, Peach Rootstock, Pear—Asian, Pear—European, Pecan, Persian Walnut, Plum and Plum Hybrids, Plum Rootstock, Raspberry, Strawberry

ALMOND

Thomas M. Gradziel

Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA

Durango. Peerless-type tree and kernel almond with paper shell. Origin: Chico, CA, by J. Chaidez. Seedling of unknown parentage found near a Peerless almond planting; introd. 2001. USPP 11,891; 22 May 2001. Nut: similar to Peerless in shape, size; low proportion of double kernels; paper shell with kernel-to-nut crack-out proportion of 0.69. Tree: medium; semi-upright; vigorous growth habit; nut production on spurs and terminal shoots; cross-incompatible with Wood Colony varietal group; consistent, heavy bloom, 2 d after Nonpareil; harvest ± 7 d after Nonpareil, 3–5 d after Peerless.

Kochi. Nonpareil-type kernel almond maturing up to 7 d before Nonpareil. Origin: Yuba City, CA, by M. Kochi. Seedling of unknown parentage found near a Drake almond planting; introd. 2004. USPP 15,049; 27 July 2004. Nut: similar to Nonpareil in shape, size with slightly darker seedcoat; low proportion of double kernels; paper shell with kernel-to-nut crack-out proportion of 0.55. Tree: medium; upright-spreading; vigorous growth habit; nut production on spurs and terminal shoots; bloom 2–4 d after Nonpareil and harvest ± 7 d before Nonpareil; greater resistance to alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria spp.) than Nonpareil.

Sweetheart. Marcona-type kernel almond with paper shell and associated high proportion of kernel-to-nut crack-out. Origin: University of California, Davis, by T. Gradziel, M. Thorpe, and D. Kester. SB3,54-39E [(Lukens Honey peach × Mission almond) × Nonpareil] × Sel 25-26 almond.; selected 1994; tested as SB13,36-52; introd. 2007. USPP applied for. Nut: similar to Marcona in shape, size; well-sealed paper shell; readily blanched; high oleic acid content; high roasting quality; long storage potential; low proportion of double kernels. Tree: upright-spreading; moderate vigor; nut production on spurs and terminal shoots; partially self-compatible and cross-compatible with all major commercial cultivars; blooms just after Nonpareil and harvests 10–14 d after Nonpareil.

Winters. Pollinizer for the early Nonpareil almond bloom having good kernel quality and high yield potential. Origin: University of California, Davis, by D. Kester, T. Gradziel, and R. Asay. Sel 3-1 × Sel 6-27; selected 1992; tested as Sel 13-1; introd. 2005. USPP 13,286; 26 Nov. 2002. Nut: similar to Nonpareil in shape and moderately sealed paper shell; smaller kernel than Nonpareil (1.1 g); medium brown seedcoat color; readily blanched; low proportion of double kernels and creased kernels. Tree: upright; vigorous; production on spurs and terminal shoots including lateral dard-type shoots from 5–20 cm in length; cross-compatibility S-allele genotype is S1 S14; cross-compatible with Nonpareil (S7 S8); blooms just before Nonpareil and harvest 1 month after Nonpareil; low vulnerability to noninfectious bud-failure; susceptible to anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) and alternaria leaf spot; relatively late harvest and moderate shell-seal make kernels susceptible to damage by navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella).

ALMOND ROOTSTOCK

Thomas G. Beckman

USDA-ARS Southeastern Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory, Byron, GA

Felinem. A clonal almond × peach hybrid rootstock for almond. Origin: Unidad de Fruticultura, SIA–DGA, Zaragoza, Spain, by A. Felipe, J. Gomez-Aparisi, M. Carrera, and R. Socias. Garfi almond × Nemared peach; selected 1987; tested as GN-22; introd. 1999. Plant: readily propagated via softwood and hardwood cuttings; unbudded tree has red leaves. Rootstock performance: adapted to calcareous soils; resistance to lime-induced chlorosis, comparable to GF677; significantly higher vigor than trees budded on peach seedling rootstocks; vigor and fruit production is very similar to that of GF677; resistant to broad range of root-knot nematodes including Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hispanica; more sensitive to waterlogging than Garnem or Monegro.

Garnem. A clonal almond × peach hybrid rootstock for almond. Origin: Unidad de Fruticultura, SIA–DGA, Zaragoza, Spain, by A. Felipe, J. Gomez-Aparisi, M. Carrera, and R. Socias. Garfi almond × Nemared peach; selected 1987; tested as GN-15; introd. 1999. Plant: readily propagated via softwood and hardwood cuttings; unbudded tree has red leaves. Rootstock performance: adapted to calcareous soils; resistance to lime-induced chlorosis, comparable to GF677; significantly higher vigor than trees budded on peach seedling rootstocks, slightly higher than that of GF677; performs well in replant situations; fruit production slightly higher than GF677; resistant to broad range of root-knot nematodes including M. arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hispanica.

Monegro. A clonal almond × peach hybrid rootstock for almond. Origin: Unidad de Fruticultura, SIA–DGA, Zaragoza, Spain, by A. Felipe, J. Gomez-Aparisi, M. Carrera, and R. Socias. Garfi almond × Nemared peach; selected 1987; tested as GN-9; introd. 1999. Plant: readily propagated via softwood and hardwood cuttings; unbudded tree has red leaves. Rootstock performance: adapted to calcareous soils; resistance to lime-induced chlorosis superior to peach seedling rootstocks, and slightly less than GF677; performs well under drought conditions; significantly higher vigor than trees budded on peach seedling rootstocks, comparable to GF677; fruit production similar to GF677; resistant to broad range of root-knot nematodes including M. arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hispanica.

APPLE

James J. Luby and David S. Bedford

Department of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN

8S2743. Productive apple that produces fruit with exceptional texture and excellent storage ability. Origin: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, BC, Canada, by W.D. Lane. Splendour × Gala; crossed 1980; selected 1989; tested as 8S-27-43. USPP applied for. Fruit: large, globose-conical; ∼90% dark red blush and green/yellow ground color; some stem bowl and lenticel russeting; ripens late mid-season, 7 d after Delicious; flesh crisp, juicy, firm, sweet; retains crispness and juiciness for 5 months in regular air storage. Tree: moderate vigor; upright, spreading, spurry growth habit; bears annually on spurs with negligible preharvest drop; cold hardiness similar to Golden Delicious in laboratory freezing tests.

Civg198 (Modì®). Very attractive red apple, highly productive, with crisp and juicy flesh. Scab resistant with Vf gene. Origin: CIV Consorzio Italiano Vivaisti, Comacchio (Ferrara), Italy, by M. Leis, A. Martinelli, F. Tagliani, and G. Castagnoli. Gala × Liberty; crossed 1992; selected 1997; tested as G-198. EU PVR applied for, USPP applied for. Fruit: medium-large; oblate; skin medium-thick, glossy, 85% to 90% red purple color; flesh of creamy color, very firm, crisp, juicy, high sugar content, balanced acidic level; very good storage ability. Tree: Moderate to low vigor on M9; open branches; very high, consistent production without biennial bearing; no need for multiple picking; resistant to apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) (Vf), very tolerant to mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and aphids.

GRE-1198. A very late season, yellow apple with large size, sweet, pear-like taste and crunchy texture. Origin: Marlboro, NY, by M. Greiner. Parentage unknown. USPP 17,284; 19 Dec. 2006. Fruit: large; globose-conical shape; prominent calyx lobes; slight ribbing; yellow-green to yellow with areas of blush greyed-orange and prominent greyish lenticels; firm, crisp, very juicy, yellowish-cream flesh, sweet, mild, pear-like flavor; very late maturing with Fuji and Rome. Tree: extremely vigorous; upright habit; heavy bearer; tendency toward heavy bearing on upright limbs.

Greenstar®. See Nicogreen.

Kanzi®. See Nicoter.

Modì®. See Civg198.

Nicogreen (Greenstar®). Early maturing, green apple similar to Granny Smith. Origin: Sint-Truiden, Belgium, by J. Nicolai. Delcorf × Granny Smith. USPP 16,559; 23 May 2006. Fruit: medium-large; oblong; green or yellow-green skin color with white flesh; very firm, juicy; ripens midseason with Reine des Reinettes. Tree: medium vigor.

Nicoter (Kanzi®). Apple similar to Gala but less conical shape and skin color is more pink and less red. Origin: Sint-Truiden, Belgium by J. Nicolai. Gala × Braeburn. USPP 17,201; 14 Nov. 2006. Fruit: medium-large; short globose conical; red skin over yellow groundcolor with yellow flesh; excellent dessert apple; ripens late-season with Golden Delicious. Tree: medium vigor; susceptible to apple scab; good heat and drought tolerance.

SnowSweet®. See Wildung.

Supermac. Apple similar to Spartan but with larger fruit, resistance to apple scab and longer storage life. Origin: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, Canada, by S. Khanizadeh, Y. Groleau, A. Levasseur, O. Carisse, D. Rekika, J. DeEll, J. Privé, I. Alli, and H. Kemp. McIntosh × PRI 674; crossed 1971; selected 1974; tested as FAR 124-A56 and SJC7123-2. Fruit: medium-large, 7.5–8.0 cm diameter; globose, slightly ribbed, sometimes lopsided; dark red blush over green ground color, white flesh; little bloom; ripens 3–4 weeks after McIntosh, does not drop at maturity; flesh crisp, juicy, firm; flavor pleasant, aromatic, slightly tart. Tree: vigorous; upright to slightly spreading; fruits on spurs and shoots; very hardy in Quebec; resistant to apple scab.

Wildung (SnowSweet®). A late season, cold hardy, sweet-flavored apple. Origin: University of Minnesota, by D. Bedford and J. Luby. Sharon × Connell Red; crossed 1970; selected 1983; tested as MN 1797. USPP applied for. Fruit: medium; oblate; 65% to 85% red, occasionally with bronze-red tones, over yellow-green; flesh white, unusually resistant to oxidative browning, firm to crisp, fine texture, sweet, rich, low acidity; matures late midseason, 14 d after Honeycrisp; stores 60–80 d. Tree: moderate vigor; somewhat pendant and open habit; average to above resistance to apple scab (more than McIntosh and less than Honeycrisp), average fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) resistance.

Zari. Early season, producing very crisp, juicy fruit with good storability and shelf life. Origin: Rillaar, Belgium, by J. Nicolai, P. Van Laer, J. Keulemans, H. Eyssen, E. Pauwels, and I. De Wit. Elstar × Delcorf; crossed 1988; selected 1994. USPP applied for. Fruit: medium; oblong conical; ∼75% orange-red blush on yellow-green background color; flesh yellow, crisp, juicy, firm, strongly aromatic, slightly rough; matures very early, 14 d before Gala; keeps well on tree and 6 weeks in storage with 14-d shelf life. Tree: very vigorous; spreading; annual bearing; average precocity; good heat tolerance.

APRICOT

Craig A. Ledbetter

USDA-ARS, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA

BO 90610010 (Bora®). An early ripening large-fruited apricot. Origin: University of Bologna and Milan, Italy, by D. Bassi. Early Blush × PA 7005-2; crossed 1990; tested as BO 9061010; introd. 2002. EU PVR applied for. Fruit: oblong; symmetrical, large, 80 g; orange skin without significant blush or sour taste; firm, yellow-orange, melting flesh; freestone; good flavor; small elliptical pit; ripens in early June with Early Tirynthos. Tree: very vigorous; upright to spreading; highly productive; easy to prune; fruits on spurs and 1-year-old shoots; mid- to late bloom; self-incompatible, known pollinizers are Sweetcot, Portici, Early Blush; appears resistant to Dideron and Marcus Plum pox virus isolates.

BO 81604334 (Boreale®). A self-compatible, skin-cracking tolerant apricot. Origin: University of Bologna, Italy, by D. Bassi. San Castrese × Reale d'Imola; crossed 1981; tested as BO 81604334; introd. 1995. Fruit: oblong; symmetrical; large, 80 g; skin light yellow with significant blush, sour taste, tolerant of rain cracking; flesh firm, yellow, melting, freestone; good flavor; ripens mid-late June, 8 d before San Castrese. Tree: very vigorous; spreading; upright; highly productive; easy to prune; fruits on spurs and 1-year-old shoots; self-compatible; mid-early bloom.

Bora®. See BO 90610010.

Boreale®. See BO 81604334.

Brittany Gold. A late-season sweet apricot for the fresh market. Origin: Zaiger Genetics, Inc., Modesto, CA, by G.N. Zaiger, L.M. Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. 20ED49 × 80GE216. USPP 13,504; 21 Jan. 2003. Fruit: globose; medium, 65 g; freestone; uniform yellow skin color; ripens 30 d after Tri-Gems; very good eating quality and flavor; moderately juicy; 18% SS. Tree: large; vigorous; semi-upright habit; believed to be self-fertile based on bagging trials; regular bearing; very productive; typically requires thinning.

Earlicot. A large-sized freestone apricot for the early season fresh market. Origin: Zaiger Genetics, Inc., Modesto, CA, C.F. Zaiger, L.M. Gardner, G.N. Zaiger, and G.G. Zaiger. 2W42 × 8W17. USPP 7,198; 20 Mar.1990. Fruit: globose; large for season; light orange ground color with orange-red blush; freestone; firm textured; mild apricot aroma; matures 8 d before Flaming Gold; slight tendency for fruit cracking before maturity. Tree: vigorous; upright; regular bearing; medium branching density.

Goldensweet. A sweet-fruited self-fertile apricot for late-season fresh and dry markets. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L. Bradford and N. Bradford. Parentage unknown. USPP 8,932; 11 Oct. 1994. Fruit: globose; medium; light orange skin with reddish blush possible; ripens 7 d before Patterson; freestone; bitter kernel; strong orange flesh color; abundantly juicy; medium apricot aroma; excellent balance of sugar and acid; 17% to 22% SS; 4.6:1 dry ratio. Tree: vigorous; medium in size; spreading with rounded top; regular bearing; very productive.

Jordanne. An early ripening freestone apricot with heavy production and good shipping characteristics. Origin: Zaiger Genetics, Inc., Modesto, CA, by C.F. Zaiger, G.N. Zaiger, L.M. Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. Unknown seedling × King Cot. USPP 8,392; 28 Sept. 1993. Fruit: nearly globose; large for season; skin of medium thickness with scant, very short pubescence; yellow to yellowish-orange skin with reddish orange blush on sun-exposed fruit surfaces; freestone; firm; juicy; pronounced apricot aroma; mild, subacid flavor; ripens 12 d before Flaming Gold. Tree: vigorous; semi-spreading; productive; regular bearing; medium branching density.

Ninfa. An early ripening, fruity-flavored apricot. Origin: University of Bologna, Italy, by D. Bassi. Ouardi × Tirynthos; crossed 1981; tested as BO 81602075; introd. 1993. Fruit: round; symmetrical; medium, 55 g; skin light yellow without blush; flesh yellow, medium-firm, melting, freestone; good flavor; pit small, elliptical; ripens early June, 5 d before Tirynthos. Tree: vigorous; spreading; upright; very productive; easy to prune; fruits on spurs and 1-year-old shoots; flowers early; self-compatible.

Petra. An excellent-flavored, late ripening apricot. Origin: University of Bologna and Milan, Italy, by D. Bassi. Goldrich × Pelese di Giovanniello; crossed 1988; tested as BO 88617102; introd. 2008. Fruit: oblong-round; symmetrical; medium, 65–70 g; orange skin without significant blush, no sour taste; orange flesh, very firm, melting, freestone; excellent flavor; very sweet, balanced acidity; aromatic; ripens early July about 3–5 d after Portici. Tree: vigorous; semi-upright; easy to prune; productive; fruits on spurs and 1-year-old shoots; mid-late bloom; self-incompatible; preliminary research indicates Portici as being a functional pollinizer.

Pieve. A self-compatible, late-ripening apricot. Origin: University of Bologna and Milan, Italy, by D. Bassi. Harcot × Reale d'Imola; crossed 1989; tested as BO 89608015; introd. 2006. Fruit: oblong; symmetrical; medium, 65 g; yellow skin with significant blush, no sour taste; firm yellow-orange flesh, melting, freestone; excellent flavor; very sweet, balanced acidity, aromatic; ripens early July with Portici; medium, elliptical pit. Tree: vigorous; spreading; easy to prune; productive; fruits on spurs and 1-year-old shoots; self-compatible; very late bloom.

Poppy. An early season freestone apricot for fresh market. Origin: Zaiger Genetics, Inc., Modesto, CA, by C.F. Zaiger, G.N. Zaiger, L.M. Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. 78EB575 × 123GD161. USPP 9,593; 25 June 1996. Fruit: nearly globose; large for season; light yellow to pale orange skin, very slight tendency to crack; freestone; ripens 5–6 d before Earlicot; firm flesh, moderate juiciness and aroma, good eating quality and flavor. Tree: large; vigorous; semi-spreading; regular bearing; productive.

Tri-Gems. A firm-fleshed apricot suitable for mechanical harvest, maintaining good texture, shape, and appearance in a canned product. Origin: Zaiger Genetics, Inc., Modesto, CA, by C.F. Zaiger, G.N. Zaiger, L.M. Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. 2W303 × O.P. USPP 6,755; 25 Apr. 1989. Fruit: globose; medium; skin medium thickness, short pubescence, yellow to golden yellow color; mid-season maturity with synchronous harvest; freestone; firm textured; pronounced aroma. Tree: vigorous; semi-spreading; regular bearing; medium branching density.

APRICOT ROOTSTOCK

Thomas G. Beckman

USDA-ARS Southeastern Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory, Byron, GA

Felinem. Compatible with apricot. Described under Almond Rootstock.

Garnem. Compatible with apricot. Described under Almond Rootstock.

Monegro. Compatible with apricot. Described under Almond Rootstock.

BLACKBERRY

John R. Clark and Colleen McCall

Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR

Chad E. Finn

USDA-ARS, Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR

Driscoll Thornless Sleeping Beauty. Low chill, thornless semi-erect blackberry that ripens early with large fruit size and that is suited for fresh market. Origin: Driscoll Strawberry Associates, Inc. Watsonville, CA, by R. Cabrera Avalos. Discovered as a spineless mutant of Sleeping Beauty in 2001. USPP 17,983; 4 Sept. 2007. Fruit: similar to Sleeping Beauty; medium-large; medium-firm; shape elliptic-ovate; suitable for fresh market. Plant: similar to Sleeping Beauty, except thornless; upright to semi-upright; vigorous; moderately productive; low to moderate chill requirement; flowers white.

Loch Maree. Thornless, semi-erect blackberry with sweet flavor for fresh market. Origin: Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Scotland, by D. Jennings and R.J. McNicol. SCRI 81309E2 × SCRI 82417A12; crossed 1986; tested as SCRI 86506G7; introd. 2006; EU PVR applied for. Fruit: medium, smaller than Loch Ness; firm; attractive conical shape; good flavor, sweet, aromatic, slightly floral; mid-season, ripening between Loch Tay and Loch Ness; suitable for fresh market. Plant: semi-erect, thornless, similar vigor to Loch Ness; hardiness not known; yield higher than Loch Tay and lower than Loch Ness; blossom attractive, pink, double; susceptible to purple blotch (Septocyta ruborum).

Natchez. Thornless erect blackberry that is early ripening with large, high-quality berries for fresh market. Origin: University of Arkansas, by J.R. Clark and J.N. Moore. Ark. 2005 × Ark. 1857; crossed 1998; selected 2001; tested as A-2241, introd. 2007. USPP applied for Fruit: elongated, somewhat blocky; large; very attractive; glossy; very firm; SS 9.5%; good postharvest storage; ripens 5 June in Clarksville with Arapaho, 7 d before Ouachita, 20 d before Apache. Plant: erect to semi-erect; thornless; good vigor; consistent high yields; moderately resistant to anthracnose (Elsinoe veneta).

BLUEBERRY

Paul M. Lyrene

Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

Beaufort. Late mid-season southern highbush cultivar adapted to mechanical harvest for fresh market and processing. Origin: North Carolina State University, by J. Ballington and S. Rooks. NC 1406 × Pender; crossed 1980; selected 1987; tested as NC 2901; introd. 2005. USPP applied for. Fruit: small to medium; excellent color, picking scar, firmness, and quality; good postharvest shelf life; ripening overlaps with and following Lenoir. Plant: good productivity with adequate cross-pollination; vigorous; upright; broad soil adaptation; not self-fertile, Pender or Lenoir are good pollinizers; readily propagated by hardwood or softwood cuttings; chilling requirement 700–800 h.

Carteret. Early to early mid-season southern highbush cultivar adapted to hand or mechanical harvest for the fresh market. First cultivar named with Vaccinium elliottii in genetic background. Origin: North Carolina State University, by J. Ballington and S. Rooks. Bounty × NC 2426; crossed 1980; selected 1987; tested as NC 2925; introd. 2005. USPP applied for. Fruit: small to medium; round to round oblate; very prominent calyx; firmness sufficient if not overripe; excellent color, picking scar, and quality; good postharvest shelf life; ripening season similar to Pamlico. Plant: very high productivity; very vigorous; upright; broad soil adaptation; flowers self-fertile, abundant pollen; readily propagated by hardwood or softwood cuttings; chilling requirement 500–700 h.

New Hanover. Large-fruited early mid-season southern highbush cultivar suited for hand harvest for fresh market. Origin: North Carolina State University, by J. Ballington and S. Rooks. NC 1522 × O'Neal; crossed 1981; selected 1987; tested as NC 3103; introd. 2005. USPP applied for. Fruit: large; very firm; excellent color and flavor; average picking scar; excellent postharvest shelf life; ripening season similar to Sampson. Plant: high productivity; vigorous; semi-upright; flowers self-fertile, abundant pollen; propagated readily by hardwood or softwood cuttings; chilling requirement 500–600 h.

Robeson. Pentaploid cultivar ripening between late highbush and early rabbiteye, adapted to hand harvest for the fresh market or mechanical harvest for processing. Origin: North Carolina State University, by J. Ballington and S. Rooks. US 226 (2n=4x=48) × Premier (2n=6x=72); crossed 1980; selected 1986; tested as NC 2849; introd. 2005. USPP applied for. Fruit: medium; good color and picking scar; excellent quality; very similar in appearance and flavor to Premier; average firmness; fair postharvest shelf life, best suited for local markets, PYO, or processing; ripens up to 14 d before Premier. Plant: good productivity with adequate cross-pollination; very vigorous; very upright; broad adaptation to soils including those with somewhat elevated pH (6.0+); early blooming; not self-fertile, poor pollen production; Premier is a good pollinizer; readily propagated by hardwood or softwood cuttings; chilling requirement 500–600 h.

CHERRY ROOTSTOCK

Gregory A. Lang

Horticulture Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

Elta. Productive rootstock for sweet or sour cherries, easy to propagate from softwood cuttings. Origin: Krymsk, Russia, by G. Eremin. Prunus lannesiana × O.P.; selected 1987; introd. 2004. USPP 16,353; 21 Mar. 2006. Plant: medium vigor; for sweet or sour cherries; higher productivity than Mazzard with sweet cherry scions; propagation by softwood cuttings.

CHERRY—SWEET

Gregory A. Lang

Horticulture Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

13S2101 (Sovereign™). Very late-season, dark red, self-fertile cherry. Origin: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, British Columbia, by D. Lane and F. Kappel. Sweetheart × O.P.; crossed 1982; selected 1990; tested as 13S-21-01; introd. 2006. Canadian PBR 1,768. Fruit: medium-large; slightly cordate; long stem; red skin; red flesh; red juice; moderately firm, freestone; sweet-acid balanced flavor; ripens very late; low susceptibility to rain-induced splitting. Tree: self-fertile; midseason bloom; vigorous; spreading; low productivity.

Andersen™. See NY 9295.

Black Star. Mid-season, dark-red skinned, pink-fleshed cherry. Origin: University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, by S. Sansavini and S. Lugli. Lapins × Burlat; crossed 1985; selected 1992; tested as DCA BO 85.723.002 (D2); introd. 2001. EU PVR 19,951; 2007. Fruit: large; cordate; symmetrical; very firm flesh; very sweet; clingstone; ripens early- to mid-season, 16–18 d after Burlat; medium-long, thick stem; almost fully resistant to rain-induced splitting. Tree: self-fertile; medium-high vigor; upright; spreading; early bloom, 4 d before Burlat; very productive.

Blaze Star. Mid-season, dark-red skinned, pink-fleshed cherry. Origin: University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, by S. Sansavini and S. Lugli. Lapins × Durone compatto di Vignola; crossed 1985; selected 1992; tested as DCA BO 85.721.006 (E8); introd. 1998. EU PVR 16,182; 2005. Fruit: medium-large; cordate; medium-firm; sweet flesh; semi-clingstone; medium-long stem; ripens early mid-season, 16 d after Burlat; good resistance to rain-induced splitting. Tree: self-fertile; medium vigor; upright; spreading; mid-season bloom, 1 d after Burlat; very productive.

Early Star™. See Panaro 2.

Grace Star. Mid early season, dark-red skinned, pink-fleshed cherry. Origin: University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, by S. Sansavini and S. Lugli. Burlat × O.P.; crossed 1984; selected 1992; tested as DCA BO 84.703.003 (F23); introd. 2001. EU PVR 20,804; 2007. Fruit: large; cordate; symmetrical; semi-firm flesh; sweet; semi-clingstone; ripens mid-early season, 12 d after Burlat; long stem; medium resistance to rain-induced splitting. Tree: self-fertile; medium-high vigor; semi-upright; mid-season bloom, 2 d after Burlat; very productive.

LaLa Star. Mid- to late season, dark red-skinned, red-fleshed cherry. Origin: University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, by S. Sansavini and S. Lugli. Compact Lambert × Lapins; crossed 1985; selected 1992; tested as DCA BO 85.710.009 (B22); introd. 1998. EU PVR 16,180; 2005. Fruit: medium-large; cordate; firm flesh; pleasant flavor; clingstone; ripens mid- to late season, 22–24 d after Burlat; medium-short stem; average resistance to rain-induced splitting. Tree: self-fertile; medium-high vigor; spreading; mid- to late-season bloom, 3 d after Burlat; precocious; very productive.

Nugent™. See NY 518.

NY 518 (Nugent™). Late-season, solid yellow skinned, yellow-fleshed cherry for brine-processing that is quite resistant to rain-induced splitting; a good pollinizer for mid-early blooming cultivars. Origin: Cornell University, by R. Andersen and S. Brown. Germersdorfer × O.P.; crossed 1986; selected 1994; introd. 2006. Fruit: medium; round; medium stem; pure yellow skin; pure yellow flesh; clear juice; firm; freestone; ripens mid late-season, same as Gold or slightly later; quite resistant to rain-induced splitting. Tree: self-infertile (S1S6); mid-early bloom; moderately vigorous; spreading; cold hardy; very productive; relatively tolerant to cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapi), bacterial canker (Pseudomonas syringae).

NY 9295 (Andersen™). Late-season, yellow-skinned, yellow-fleshed cherry for brine-processing, exhibits excellent stem retention when harvested mechanically. Origin: Cornell University, by R. Andersen, S. Brown, and R. Way. Wederscher Markt × O.P.; crossed 1963; selected 1971; introd. 2006. Fruit: moderately large size; rounded kidney; long thick stems; tends to bear as singles; yellow skin with bright pink blush; white flesh; clear juice; freestone; acid flavor, not sweet; firm; ripens late-season; moderately resistant to rain-induced splitting. Tree: self-infertile (S3S6); mid-late bloom; moderately vigorous; spreading with drooping lateral growth; cold hardy; very productive; relatively tolerant to bacterial canker.

Panaro 1 (Sweet Early™). Very early season, dark-red skinned, pinkish-fleshed cherry. Origin: University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, by S. Sansavini and S. Lugli. Burlat × Sunburst; crossed 1984, selected 1990–92, tested as DCA BO 84.704.006 (G45); introd. 2001. EU PVR 19,933; 2007. Fruit: large; symmetrical; medium-long stem; thin skin; dark-red blush; moderately firm flesh; sweet; average clingstone; ripens very early, 2–4 d before Burlat; medium-high resistance to rain splitting. Tree: self-fertile; medium-early bloom, 3 d before Burlat; vigorous; upright; productive.

Panaro 2 (Early Star™). Early season, dark-red skinned, pink-fleshed cherry. Origin: University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, by S. Sansavini and S. Lugli. Burlat × Compact Stella; crossed 1983; selected 1992; tested as DCA BO 83.705.001 (G25); introd. 1998. EU PVR 16,181; 2005. Fruit: very large; symmetrical; cordate; flesh very firm, pink, blushed near stone; clingstone; average flavor; medium-short, thick stem; ripens early, 2–4 d after Burlat; medium resistance to rain-induced splitting. Tree: self-fertile; very vigorous; upright; medium bloom, 2 d after Burlat; productive.

Sentennial™. See SPC103.

Sovereign™. See 13S2101.

SPC103 (Sentennial™). Very late-season, dark-red, self-fertile cherry. Origin: Summerland, British Columbia, by D. Lane and F. Kappel. Sweetheart × O.P.; crossed 1982; selected 1991; tested as 13S-21-23; introd. 2006. Canadian PBR 2,608. Fruit: moderately large; round; long stem; red to dark red skin; red flesh; red juice; firm; clingstone; sweet flavor; ripens very late-season; relatively low susceptibility to rain-induced splitting. Tree: self-fertile; moderately late bloom; vigorous; spreading; very productive.

Sweet Early™. See Panaro 1.

CURRANT

Kim E. Hummer

USDA-ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, OR

Ben Avon. High-yielding, upright growing, late-flowering, black currant with very good fruit/juice quality. Origin: Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, Scotland, by R. Brennan; Ben Alder × SCRI C2/1/62; sister seedling of Ben Dorain; tested as SCRI S26/1/1; introd. 2003. EU PVR 14,649. Fruit: large, similar to Ben Lomond;, similar to Ben Alder, hangs on the bush longer; juice quality good; higher vitamin C and delphinidin content than Ben Tirran. Plant: similar to Ben Tirran; large; vigorous; fully machine-harvestable; late flowering, 11 d after Ben Lomond, slightly later than Ben Dorain; ripens 10–13 d after Ben Lomond, 4–6 d after Ben Dorain, similar season to Ben Tirran; very high yields in trials, 5.29 t/ha, 7-year average; potential replacement for Ben Alder in the UK; good resistance to mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) leaf spot (Drepanopezizia ribis); low susceptibility to leaf curling midge (Dasyneura tetensi); susceptible to gall mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis) and Black currant reversion virus, although cropping is only slowly affected; named for mountain in the Scottish highlands; from the Gaelic: “the bright one.”

Ben Dorain. High-yielding, upright-growing black currant with very good fruit/juice quality. Origin: Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, Scotland, by R. Brennan; Ben Alder × SCRI C2/1/62; sister sibling to Ben Avon; tested as SCRI S26/1/2; introd. 2002. EU PVR 14,647. Fruit: higher vitamin C content than Ben Alder or Ben Tirran; high brix level. Plant: strong growing; upright; well-adapted to mechanical harvesting; blooms 6–8 d after Ben Lomond; harvest 8 d after Ben Lomond; high yields, 7.52 t/ha; resistant to powdery mildew and leaf spot; low susceptibility to leaf curling midge; susceptible to gall mite and reversion virus although cropping is only slowly affected; named for mountain in the Scottish highlands; Ben Dorain is also a well-known Gaelic song by Duncan Bàn.

Big Ben. Large, sweet black currant for fresh market and home garden. Origin: Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, Scotland, by M. Anderson and R. Brennan. Complex cross involving (Goliath × Ojebyn) O.P., Ben Nevis, and Vistavotnaja; tested as SCRI C2/15/40; introd. 2007. Fruit: high brix/acid ratio; very large, usually > 2g; high yields; best for fresh consumption rather than juicing. Plant: spreading, strong branches; can be grown on wires in protected situations; not suitable for mechanical harvest; blooms about 7 d before Ben Lomond; ripens with Ben Gairn; resistant to powdery mildew and leaf spot.

Čačanska Crna. Frost-hardy, high-yielding, multiple use, good fruit quality black currant Origin: Fruit and Viticulture Research Centre, Cacak, Yugoslavia, by M. Stanisavljevic, M. Tesovic, and K. Pavlovic. Malling Jet × O.P.; crossed 1980; selected 1984; tested as I-74; introd. 1999. Fruit: large, 0.82 g; borne on long strigs averaging 8.5 berries; separates readily from the pedicel; each berry has 42 seeds on average; 15.1% SS; 2.88% of total acids; suitable for fresh consumption, freezing and processing. Plant: vigorous; erect but spreading with crop weight; leaves large, dark green, pronounced venation; buds elongated; racemes long with central axis bearing 10–15 flowers; flower large, green-yellow; self-fertile; yield high; blooms mid-early; ripens mid- to late season. The name means “Cacak black.”

GRAPE

Christopher L. Owens

USDA-ARS, Grape Genetics Research Unit, Geneva, NY

90-3437. A dark-red/purple seedless table grape. Origin: San Rafael, AZ, by A.A. Gargiulo. Red Globe × 26916; selected 1990. USPP 18,226; 20 Nov. 2007. Fruit: dark purple; large; seedless; ripens early to mid-October, similar to Emperor. Cluster: moderately loose; medium to large. Vine: slightly more productive and vigorous than Thompson Seedless.

90-3618. A dark-red, seedless table grape with good handling characteristics. Origin: San Rafael, AZ, by A.A. Gargiulo. Red Globe × 26916; crossed 2001. USPP 17,211; 14 Nov. 2006. Fruit: dark-red; 6.5 g untreated, 12.0 g GA treated; seedless; ripens early to mid-September. Cluster: 469 g; relatively loose; tapered, broadly shouldered. Vine: similar productivity to Thompson Seedless; more vigorous than Thompson Seedless.

Black Globe. A large-fruited, seeded black table grape. Origin: San Rafael, AZ, by A.A. Gargiulo. Red Globe × Fantasy; crossed 1989; selected 1993. USPP 17,875; 24 July 2007. Fruit: black; large; seeded; obovate to elliptic; mild flavor. Cluster: average 900-1350 g; moderately loose; narrow, tapering. Vine: about as productive as Thompson Seedless; more vigorous than Thompson Seedless.

Blanc Seedless. A late-ripening, white seedless grape. Origin: Bakersfield, CA, by J. Maranto. Red Globe × Crimson; crossed 1993; selected 1998. USPP 17,504; 20 Mar. 2007. Fruit: white; medium sized; elongated; seedless; ripens approximately 4 weeks after Thompson Seedless; mild flavor. Cluster: average 450 g; conical with shoulders. Vine: very vigorous; highly productive.

Corot Noir™. See NY70.0809.10.

DM 8313-1. A muscat wine grape with excellent winter hardiness. Origin: South Haven, MN, by D. MacGregor. ES 2-11-4 × DM P3-54 (Suelter × Morio Muscat); crossed 1983; selected 1987. USPP 17,773; 29 May 2007. Fruit: greenish-yellow; small, 1.5 g; ripens early mid-season, with Marechal Foch; averages 20° Brix; 1.0 g/L titratable acidity; muscat aroma. Cluster: small, 65 g; cylindrical to conical; moderately well-filled; long peduncles. Vine: low to moderate vigor; trailing; moderately resistant to common fungal diseases; extremely winter hardy, similar to Marechal Foch.

Frontenac Gris. A grey-colored mutation of Frontenac winegrape. Origin: University of Minnesota, by J. Luby and P. Hemstad. Identified 1992; introd. 2004. USPP 16,478; 25 Apr. 2006. Fruit: gray (or gris); in all other attributes identical to Frontenac; wines very little herbaceousness, typical aromas of peach, apricot, and citrus; like Frontenac, can have high titratable acidity. Cluster: medium, somewhat loose. Vine: outstanding resistance to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola,), moderate resistance to powdery mildew (Uncinula necator) and black rot (Guignardia bidwellii); susceptible to foliar phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) but tolerant to the root form; vines have excellent winter hardiness, survives –35 °C.

Maxine Rouge. A high-yielding, early ripening red winegrape that maintains high acidity in a warm climate. Origin: Ceres, CA, by F. Triplett. F1-2 × T793-20 (Grenache × Ravat noir); tested as F101-3; introd. 2007. Fruit: blue-black; round; medium-small, 1.2 g; tough skin; average 23.4° Brix, 1.06 g/L titratable acidity, pH 3.2; wines medium body; good color and mouth feel; aromas of red to dark fruits with some herbaceous character, similar to Cabernet Sauvignon and Ruby Cabernet. Cluster: small, 150 g/cluster; loose to well-filled; short conical, sometimes shouldered with medium peduncles. Vine: vigorous; upright; produces open canopy.

NY62.0122.01 (Valvin Muscat™). Mid-season, white wine grape with muscat flavor, moderate winter hardiness, and fungal disease resistance. Origin: Cornell University, by B. Reisch, R. Luce, B. Bordelon, and T. Henick-Kling. Muscat du Moulin (Couderc 299-35) × Muscat Ottonel; crossed 1962; selected 1969; introd. 2006. Fruit: white, ripens October in Geneva; wines strong muscat character, no bitterness, 16–22° Brix. Cluster: 68 g/cluster. Vine: own-rooted vines long-lived in phylloxera-infected soils but low pruning weight, grafting onto standard rootstocks is recommended; moderately susceptible to downy and powdery mildew and black rot, resistance to botrytis (Botrytis cinerea); late budbreak; moderate winter-hardiness, similar to Seyval blanc and Traminette, less hardy than Vignoles; yields average 7.5 kg/vine.

NY70.0809.10 (Corot Noir™). A mid- to late-season red wine grape with moderate winter hardiness and fungal disease resistance suitable for either blending or the production of varietal wines. Origin: Cornell University, by B. Reisch, R. Luce, B. Bordelon, and T. Henick-Kling. Seyve Villard 18-307 × Steuben; crossed 1970; selected 1975; introd. 2006. Fruit: black; ripens early to mid-October in Geneva; wines have cherry and berry aromas with soft, full tannin structure, free of typical hybrid aromas, 16.6–19° Brix. Cluster: average 190 g/cluster. Vine: own-rooted vines long-lived in phylloxera-infected soils; cluster thinning necessary on secondary shoots; slightly susceptible to powdery mildew, black rot, and botrytis bunch rot, moderately susceptible to downy mildew; late budbreak, 3–7 d after Concord; moderately winter hardy, better hardiness than Chambourcin and Cayuga White, not as hardy as Marechal Foch and Frontenac; very productive, yields average 11.34 kg/vine.

NY73.0136.17 (Noiret™). A mid-season red wine grape with moderate winter hardiness and fungal disease resistance suitable for the production of varietal wines. Origin: Cornell University, by B. Reisch, R. Luce, B. Bordelon, and T. Henick-Kling. NY65.0467.08 × Steuben; crossed 1973; introd. 2006. Fruit: black; ripens late September to early October in Geneva; wines good color, aromas of berries, green and black pepper, and mint, good tannin structure, free of hybrid aromas, 18–20° Brix. Cluster: average 160 g/cluster. Vine: own-rooted vines long-lived in phylloxera-infected soils, moderately vigorous, grafting onto standard rootstocks is recommended; slightly susceptible to powdery mildew, black rot, and botrytis; moderately susceptible to downy mildew; late budbreak; moderately winter hardy, about equivalent of Chambourcin and Cayuga white; yields average 5.6 kg/vine.

Noiret™. See NY73.0136.17.

Rougett. A high-yielding, late-ripening red-wine grape that maintains high acidity in a warm climate. Origin: Ceres, CA, by F. Triplett. T213-13 × T42-36; tested as F1-13; introd. 2007. Fruit: blue-black, oval, medium, 1.9 g; averaged 21.4° Brix, 1.15 g/L titratable acidity, pH 3.3; wines light bodied, color is light to medium, low to medium tannin levels, aromas of strawberries and raspberries. Cluster: medium-large, 360 g/cluster; well-filled; often winged; peduncles short to medium, often lignified. Vine: moderately vigorous; semi-erect growth habit; produces fairly open canopy.

Sugratwentyfour. A mid-season, seedless white grape with muscat flavor. Origin: Sun World International, Inc., Bakersfield, CA, by D. Cain and M. Striem. Black Monukka × Sugrafive; crossed 1988; selected 1992. USPP 16,177; 3 Jan. 2006. Fruit: white; mid-season, ripens with Thompson Seedless, before other seedless, muscat cultivars; berry weight averages 3.7 g; round; seedless; possesses distinct, mild muscat flavor. Cluster: averages 560 g/cluster; loose, cylindrical; short peduncle. Vine: moderately vigorous; moderately productive.

Valvin Muscat™. See NY62.0122.01.

HAZELNUT

Shawn A. Mehlenbacher

Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR

Sacajawea. Hazelnut for the blanched kernel market. Origin: Oregon State University, by S.A. Mehlenbacher and D.C. Smith. OSU 43.091 × Sant Pere; OSU 43.091 believed to be seedling from Sicilian cultivar Montebello × selfed; crossed 1990; selected 1998; tested as OSU 540.130; introd. 2006. Nut: medium, 2.8 g; light brown, attractive; 52% kernel by weight; pellicle has very little fiber, easily removed by dry heat; husk equal in length to the nut; about 97% free-husking; flavor and texture excellent; few nut and kernel defects; matures 10–14 d before Barcelona. Tree: moderately vigorous, 86% of size of Barcelona; productive; high level of quantitative resistance to eastern filbert blight (Anisogramma anomala), resistant to big bud mites (Phytoptus avellanae and Cecidophyopsis vermiformis); incompatibility alleles S1S22.

Santiam. Hazelnut for the kernel market. Origin: Oregon State University, by S.A. Mehlenbacher, D.C. Smith, A.N. Azarenko, and R.L. McCluskey. OSU 249.159 × VR 17–15; crossed 1989; selected 1997; tested as OSU 509.064; introd. 2005. Nut: small, 2.2 g, medium-brown; 51% kernel by weight; kernel fibrous, half of pellicle removed by dry heat; husk slightly shorter than the nut, about 95% free-husking; flavor and texture acceptable; few nut and kernel defects; moldy kernels noted in some years; matures 10–14 d before Barcelona. Tree: moderately vigorous, 68% of size of Barcelona; productive; complete resistance to eastern filbert blight, moderately resistant to big bud mites; incompatibility alleles S3S15.

NECTARINE

W.R. Okie, USDA-ARS

Southeastern Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory, Byron, GA

Colleen McCall and John R. Clark

Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR

Brunectwentyone. Yellow-fleshed, firm, late-season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Fowler, CA, by J.K. Slaughter and T.J. Gerdts. Burnectfour × O.P. USPP 17,233; 28 Nov. 2006. Fruit: round; uniform; large; red covers 50% to 60% of surface over yellow orange; flesh firm, juicy, dense, non-melting; flavor sweet, slightly acidic; ripens 21 Sept. in Fowler, after Spring Bright. Tree: upright; moderately vigorous; medium-large; medium dense; productive; flowers showy, light pink; leaf glands small, reniform.

Burnectnineteen. Yellow-fleshed, firm, early season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Fowler, CA, by J.K. Slaughter and T.J. Gerdts. Crimson Baby × unnamed peach. USPP 17,140; 10 Oct. 2006. Fruit: rounded; uniform; large; red covers 85% to 95% of surface over yellow-orange; flesh firm, juicy, dense, firm melting; flavor sweet, mildly acidic; ripens 12 May in Fowler, 5 d before Crimson Baby. Tree: upright; moderately vigorous; medium-large; medium dense; productive; flowers showy, light pink to medium pink; leaf glands medium small, reniform.

Burnectwenty. Yellow-fleshed, firm, late-season clingstone nectarine. Origin: Fowler, CA, by J.K. Slaughter and T.J. Gerdts. B17.074 × O.P. USPP 17,018; 22 Aug. 2006. Fruit: rounded; uniform; large; red covers 45% to 55% of surface over yellow-orange; flesh firm, juicy, dense, non-melting; flavor sweet, slightly acidic; ripens 13 Sept. in Fowler, 10 d before B17.074. Tree: upright; moderately vigorous; medium-large; medium dense; productive; flowers showy, light pink; leaf glands small, reniform.

Burnectwentythree. White-fleshed, firm, saucer-shaped clingstone nectarine. Origin: Fowler, CA, by J.K. Slaughter and T.J. Gerdts. Burpeachone × Zhang Yu Pan. USPP 17,890; 31 July 2006. Fruit: saucer-shaped, peento; uniform with occasional lobbing; large; medium to dark red covers 70% to 90% of surface over light yellow; flesh firm, dense, non-melting; flavor sweet, sub-acid; ripens 12 June in Fowler, 14 d after Burpeachone. Tree: upright; moderately vigorous; medium-large size; medium dense; productive; flowers showy, light to medium pink; leaf glands small, globose.

Grand Bright. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Ruby Diamond × unnamed nectarine. USPP 16,494; 2 May 2006. Fruit: globose; uniform; large; dark red over a strong reddish-orange background, light orange-yellow to light yellow ground color; flesh very firm, crisp; flavor tasty blend of acid and sugar; ripens 17 July in Le Grand, 7 d after Ruby Diamond. Tree: upright; vigorous; large size; dense; productive; flowers showy, very large, self-fertile, purplish-pink to pale-pink toward the apex; leaf glands medium, reniform, alternate.

Late Bright. Yellow-fleshed, firm, late-season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. September Red × unnamed peach. USPP 17,167; 24 Oct. 2006. Fruit; globose; uniform; very large; very deep red sparsely streaked into a dark reddish-orange over a vivid yellow ground color; flesh very firm, crisp; flavor sweet, acidic; ripens 10 Sept. in Le Grand. Tree: upright; vigorous; large size; dense; productive; flowers showy, large, self-fertile, light purplish-pink to pale-pink toward the apex; leaf glands, medium, alternate and opposite, reniform.

May Pearl. White-fleshed, firm, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. June Pearl × Rose Diamond. USPP 17,254; 5 Dec. 2006. Fruit: globose; mostly uniform; medium size; dark-red mottled over strong reddish orange background with some pale greenish-yellow streaking near the shoulders and moderate light orange-yellow freckling toward the apex; flesh medium-firm, melting; flavor sub-acid to slightly acidic, mild, sweet; ripens 22 May in Le Grand, 21 d before June Pearl and 10 d before Early Pearl. Tree: upright; vigorous; medium size; dense; productive; flowers showy, very large, self-fertile, moderately purplish-pink; leaf glands small, usually alternate, globose.

May Pearl II. White-fleshed, firm, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Unnamed white fleshed peach × Rose Bright. USPP 17,825; 26 June 2007. Fruit: globose; uniform; medium size; dark red smoothly blending into a deep reddish-orange background with slight brilliant orange-yellow freckling toward the apex; flesh firm, crisp, melting; flavor mildly sub-acidic and sweet; ripens 28 May in Le Grand. Tree: spreading; vigorous; medium size; dense; productive; flowers showy, large, self-fertile, light purplish-pink; leaf glands small, opposite, globose.

Nectagala. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, mid-season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Elne, France, by L. Maillard and A. Maillard. Zaitabo × Maillarbelle. USPP 17,581; 10 Apr. 2007. Fruit: round to slightly oblate; uniform; large to very large; dark red blush covers 90% to 100% of surface with orange-red ground color; flesh very firm; semi-sweet, spicy; ripens 16 Aug. in Elne, 7 d after Nectaross. Tree: semi-upright; vigorous; medium-large; medium dense and dense; very productive; flowers showy, medium, pale-pink; leaf glands medium to large, reniform.

Nectalady. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, late-season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Elne, France, by L. Maillard and A. Maillard. Maillarnecta × O.P. USPP 17,580; 10 Apr. 2007. Fruit: rounded to slightly oblate; uniform; large; vivid red covers 90% to 100% of surface over orange-red ground color; flesh very firm, very dense, juicy; flavor spicy, semi-sweet; ripens 1 Sept. in Elne, 7–10 d after Maillarnecta. Tree: semi-spreading; vigorous; medium-large; medium dense; very productive; flowers showy, medium, pale-pink; leaf glands medium to large, reniform.

Nectarmagie. White-fleshed, very-firm, early season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Elne, France, by L. Maillard and A. Maillard. Maillarnecta × O.P. USPP 17,579; 10 Apr. 2007. Fruit: round; uniform; large to very large; bright purple red covers 90% to 100% of surface over a cream-washed red ground color; flesh very firm, very dense, juicy; flavor spicy, semi-sweet; ripens 2 July in Elne, 3–4 d before Maillarmagie. Tree: semi-spreading; vigorous; medium; medium dense to dense; very productive; flowers showy, medium, pale-pink; leaf glands small, round.

Nectaperle. White-fleshed, very firm, early season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Elne, France, by L. Maillard and A. Maillard. Maillarosettte × Zaitabo. USPP 17,548; 3 Apr. 2007. Fruit: round; large to very large; bright purple red covers 90% to 100% of surface over pink-washed red ground color; flesh very firm, very dense, juicy; flavor spicy, semi-sweet; ripens 17 July in Elne, 3 d before Zaigibe. Tree: semi-spreading; vigorous; medium-large; medium-dense to dense; very productive; flowers non-showy, small, dark pink to purple-pink; leaf glands, medium, reniform.

Nectapink. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, mid-season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Elne, France, by L. Maillard and A. Maillard. Zaitabo × Maillarbelle. USPP 17,584; 10 Apr. 2007. Fruit: round to semi-ovate; uniform; large; dark red blush covers 80% to 90% of surface with orange red ground color; flesh firm; semi-sweet, spicy; ripens 28 July in Elne, 30 d after Zaitabo. Tree: upright; vigorous; medium-large; medium dense and dense; very productive; flowers showy, medium, pale-pink; leaf glands medium, reniform.

Nectaprima. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, early season clingstone nectarine. Origin: Elne, France, by L. Maillard and A. Maillard. Zaitabo × Armking. USPP 17,583; 10 Apr. 2007. Fruit: round; uniform; large; dark red covers 90% to 100% of surface, ground color dark red; flesh very firm, very dense, juicy; flavor spicy, semi-sweet; ripens 1 June in Elne, 30 d before Zaitabo and 7 d before Maillara. Tree: semi-spreading; vigorous; medium-large; medium dense to dense; very productive; flowers showy, medium, pale-pink; leaf glands small, round.

Nectareine. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, mid-season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Elne, France, by L. Maillard and A. Maillard. Zaitabo × Andano. USPP 17,480; 6 Mar. 2007. Fruit: round to slightly oblate; uniform; large to very large; dark red covers 80% to 90% of surface over orange-red ground color; flesh very firm, very dense, juicy; flavor spicy, semi-sweet; ripens 21 July in Elne, 22 d after Zaitabo and 10 d after Andano. Tree: semi-upright; medium-large; dense; very productive; flowers showy, medium to large, pale-pink; leaf glands medium to large, reniform.

Nectariane. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, early season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Elne, France, by L. Maillard and A. Maillard. Andano × Zaitabo. USPP 17,707; 8 May 2007. Fruit: round to semi-oblong; uniform; large to very large; dark red covers 80% to 90% of surface over orange-red ground color; flesh very firm, very dense, juicy; flavor spicy, semi-sweet; ripens 13 July in Elne, 5 d after Andano and 17 d after Zaitabo. Tree: semi-upright; vigorous; medium-large; medium dense to dense; very productive; flowers non-showy, small, dark pink to purple or red-pink; leaf glands medium to large, reniform.

Nectaroyal. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, semi-late-season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Elne, France, by L. Maillard and A. Maillard. Unnamed nectarine × O.P. USPP 17,582; 10 Apr. 2007. Fruit: round to slightly oblate; uniform; large to very large; dark red covers 80% to 90% of surface over bright orange-red ground color; flesh very firm, very dense, juicy; flavor spicy, semi-sweet; ripens 15 Aug. in Elne, 45 d after Zaitabo. Tree: semi-upright; moderately vigorous; medium-large; medium dense to dense; very productive; flowers showy, medium, pink; leaf glands medium, reniform.

NJN100. White-fleshed, firm, melting, early season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Rutgers University, by J.C. Goffreda and A.M Voordeckers. B8-9-46-712034 × Eastern Glo. USPP 18,147; 30 Oct. 2007. Fruit: round to nearly round; large; mottled red over a red blush, ground color greyed-white; flesh firm, melting; flavor sweet, moderately acidic; ripens 8–28 July in Cream Ridge. Tree: spreading; vigorous; slightly above average; moderately dense; excellent productivity; flowers showy, large, red; leaf glands reniform.

Pacific Sweet. Yellow-fleshed, firm, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Unnamed nectarine × O.P. USPP 17,206; 14 Nov. 2006. Fruit: globose to slightly oblong; uniform; large; very deep red over deep red background with pale yellow freckling toward the apex; flesh firm, crisp; flavor sub-acid, sweet; ripens 22 June in Le Grand, 5 d after Spring Bright. Tree: spreading; vigorous; large; open; productive; flowers showy, large, self-fertile, light purplish-pink to pale-pink toward the apex; leaf glands medium, alternate and opposite, reniform.

Polar Light. White-fleshed, firm, low-chill, early season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Modesto, CA, by G.N. Zaiger, L.M Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. Unnamed nectarine × O.P. USPP 16,858; 25 July 2006. Fruit: globose; large; yellow ground color partially overspread with red; flesh firm, holds firm long on tree, 8–10 d more than most early maturing standard cultivars; flavor very good balance between sugar and acid; ripens 18 May in Modesto, 6 d before May Glo. Tree: upright; vigorous; large; medium dense; productive; flowers showy, large, red-pink; leaf glands medium to large, reniform.

Red Bright. Yellow-fleshed, firm, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Ruby Diamond × unnamed peach. USPP 17,086; 5 Sept. 2006. Fruit: globose; uniform; large; very deep red over a moderate red with slight light orange-yellow freckling; flesh firm, crisp; flavor acid, mild, sweet; ripens 28 June in Le Grand, 7 d before Ruby Diamond. Tree: upright; vigorous; medium; dense; very productive; flowers showy, large moderately purplish pink to pale-pink toward the apex; leaf glands medium, mostly opposite, reniform.

S 6816. Yellow-fleshed, soft, early season, freestone nectarine. Origin: Angers, France, by R. Monet. [(Kiang-Si × Independence) × Summergrand] × Marsun. USPP 16,709; 27 June 2006. Fruit: broad oblate; symmetric; small; red-purple over orange-red ground color; flesh soft; flavor very sweet, low acid; ripens late July in Parker. Tree: upright; strong vigor; large; flowers showy, pink; leaf glands reniform.

S 6817. Yellow-fleshed, firm, late-season, semi-freestone. Origin: Angers, France, by R. Monet. [(Kiang-Si × Independence) × Summergrand] × Marsun. USPP 16,709; 27 June 2006. Fruit: oblate, very flat; medium; red over yellow-orange ground color; flesh firm, crisp; flavor sub-acid; ripens 27 Aug. in Parker. Tree: upright, spreading; strong vigor; flowers showy, pink; leaf glands reniform.

Sauzee King. White-fleshed, firm, early season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Modesto, CA, by G.N. Zaiger, L.M Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. Honey Kist × 55ZA19. USPP 16,258; 14 Feb. 2006. Fruit: peento; medium; yellow ground color overspread with red; flesh meaty, firmer than Saturn; flavor mild, sweet, sub-acid; ripens 4 June in Modesto, 8 d before Honey Kist. Tree: upright; vigorous; large; medium-dense; productive; flowers showy, large, red pink; leaf glands medium to large, reniform.

Sugar Pearl. White-fleshed, very firm, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Summer Bright × unnamed white nectarine. USPP 17,442; 27 Feb. 2007. Fruit: symmetrical; uniform; large; very deep red smoothly blending to moderate red with some dark orange-yellow freckling toward the apex; flesh very firm, crisp; flavor sub-acid, sweet; ripens 10 July in Le Grand. Tree: spreading; medium vigor; medium; dense; very productive; flowers non-showy, small, self-fertile, light purplish-pink with moderately purplish-red toward margin; leaf glands large, alternate, reniform.

Sugarine I. Yellow-fleshed, firm, early season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Bright Pearl × Spring Bright. USPP 16,585; 30 May 2007. Fruit: globose; uniform; medium; very deep red smoothly blending into a moderate red background with only slight brilliant orange-yellow freckling toward the apex; flesh very firm, crisp; flavor very sweet, sub-acid; ripens 28 June in Le Grand, 14 d before Bright Pearl and 14 d after Spring Bright. Tree: spreading; vigorous; medium; dense; productive; flowers showy, large, self-fertile, purplish-pink; leaf glands small, mostly alternate, globose.

Sunectwentyone. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, low-chill, early season, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Bakersfield, CA, by D.W. Cain and T.A Bacon. 94-051N × 94-025N. USPP 18,114; 9 Oct. 2007. Fruit: round to slightly elongated; red covers 85% to 95% of surface over yellow ground color; flesh very firm, fine; flavor tart, sweet; ripens 7 May in Wasco, 5 d after 94-051N and 14 d before 94-025N. Tree: upright, spreading; vigorous; dense; productive; flowers non-showy, self-fertile, red-purple; leaf glands alternate, reniform.

Viking Pearl. White-fleshed, very firm, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Group WNC × O.P. USPP 16,539; 16 May 2006. Fruit: globose; uniform; large; very deep red smoothly blending to dark pink with minimal light orange-yellow freckling toward the apex; flesh firm, crisp; flavor sub-acid, sweet; ripens 1 Aug. in Le Grand. Tree: spreading; medium vigor; medium; dense; productive; flowers non-showy, small; leaf glands medium, alternate, globose.

Western Bright. Yellow-fleshed, firm, clingstone nectarine. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Diamond Ray × unnamed nectarine. USPP 16,467; 18 Apr. 2006. Fruit: globose; uniform; large; very dark red smoothly blending into a strong red background with a minor amount of light orange yellow freckling toward apex; flesh firm, crisp, melting; flavor acidic, sweet; ripens 22 June in Le Grand, 12 d before Diamond Ray. Tree: spreading; vigorous; medium; dense; very productive; flowers showy, large, dark purplish-pink to pale-pink toward the apex; leaf glands small, alternate, globose.

PAWPAW

Kim E. Hummer

USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, OR

Neal Peterson

Peterson Pawpaws, Harpers Ferry, WV

Allegheny™. See PPF 2-9.

Potomac™. See PPF 4-2.

PPF 1-7-2 (Wabash™). Large, fragrant pawpaw, with smooth, custard-textured flesh. Origin: Peterson Pawpaws, Harpers Ferry, WV, by N. Peterson. BEF 30 × O.P.; collected 1982; selected at the Western Maryland Research and Education Center, University of Maryland, Keedysville, MD in 1994; tested as PPF 1-7-2 as part of the Pawpaw Foundation multi-state selection trials from 1995–2000; introd. 2007. Fruit: very fleshy; percent seed ∼6% by weight; flavor sweet and rich; texture medium-firm, creamy, smooth; flesh color yellow to orange-ish; 226–340 g; good productivity; overall fruit quality and quantity excellent. Plant: vigorous; responds well to pruning; flowers mid-season, ripens mid- to late-season, 16–22 Sept. in Keedysville, MD.

PPF 2-9 (Allegheny™). Medium, fragrant pawpaw, with smooth, custard-textured flesh. Origin: Peterson Pawpaws, Harpers Ferry, WV, by N. Peterson. Davis × O.P.; collected 1980; selected in 1994 at the Wye Research and Education Center, University of Maryland, Queenstown, MD.; tested as PPF 2-9; was not part of the Pawpaw Foundation multi-state selection trials; introd. 2007. Fruit: medium fleshiness; percent seed ∼8% by weight; flavor sweet, rich, with a hint of citrus; superb flavor; texture medium firm, smooth; flesh medium-yellow; 140–280 g; very productive, if heavily cropped size and fleshiness suffers. Tree: vigorous, responds well to pruning; tree requires fruit thinning to maintain fruit size > 226 g and percent seed <8%; flowers mid-season; ripens mid- to late-season, 15–23 Sept. in Queenstown, MD.

PPF 4-2 (Potomac™). Large, fragrant pawpaw, smooth, custard-textured flesh. Origin: Peterson Pawpaws, Harpers Ferry, WV, by N. Peterson. BEF 53 × O.P.; collected 1982; selected at the Western Maryland Research and Education Center, University of Maryland, Keedysville, Md. in 1994; tested as PPF 4-2 as part of the Pawpaw Foundation multi-state selection trials from 1995–2000; introd. 2007. Fruit: extremely fleshy; percent seed ∼4% by weight; flavor sweet, rich; texture firm, melting, smooth; flesh medium-yellow; 340 g; medium productivity; overall fruit quality excellent; Tree: vigorous; responds well to pruning; strong apical dominance; very upright, less spreading than most; flowers mid-season; ripens mid-season, 9–19 Sept. in Keedysville, MD.

Wabash™. See PPF 1-7-2.

PEACH

W.R. Okie

USDA-ARS, Southeastern Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory, Byron, GA

Colleen McCall and John R. Clark

Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR

Augustprince. Yellow-fleshed, late-season, freestone peach. Origin: USDA-ARS, Byron, GA, by W.R. Okie. Sunprince × BY87P943; tested as BY96P2631; introd. 2006. Fruit: large, 7–8 cm in diameter when adequately thinned, usually very round; larger, firmer and redder than Jefferson; 70% to 80% bright red with attractive yellow ground color, little pubescence; ripens late July to early August at Byron, with Jefferson, 3–7 d after Early Augustprince. Tree: flower large, showy, self-fertile; chilling requirement 850 h; leaf glands reniform; moderately resistant to bacterial spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni).

Beaumont™. See MSUP8706.

Burpeachtwentyone. Yellow-fleshed, firm, clingstone peach. Origin: Fowler, CA, by J.K. Slaughter and T.J. Gerdts. A25.045 × O.P. USPP 17,016; 22 Aug. 2006. Fruit: oblate; uniform; large; red 80% to 90% over yellow ground color; flesh firm, juicy, dense, non-melting; flavor sweet, mildly acidic; ripens 5 July in Fowler, 10 d before A25.045. Tree: upright; moderately vigorous; medium-large; medium-dense; productive; flowers showy, light pink to medium pink; leaf glands small, reniform.

Burpeachtwentytwo. Yellow-fleshed, firm, early, clingstone peach. Origin: Fowler, CA, by J.K. Slaughter and T.J. Gerdts. Unnamed peach × Tropic Beauty. USPP 17,258; 5 Dec. 2006. Fruit: round; uniform; large; red blush covers 70% to 80% of surface over yellow ground color; flesh firm, melting, juicy, dense; flavor sweet, mildly acidic; ripens 28 Apr. in Fresno, 10 d before Tropic Beauty and 7 d before Queencrest. Tree: upright; vigorous; large; dense; productive; flowers showy, self-fertile, light pink to medium pink; leaf glands small, reniform.

Candy Princess. Yellow-fleshed, firm, sub-acid, freestone peach. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by, L.G. Bradford. Super Bright × unnamed peach. USPP 16,462; 18 Apr. 2006. Fruit: globose to slightly oblate; uniform; large; dark red smoothly blending into a strong reddish-orange background over a brilliant yellow ground color; flesh firm, crisp, melting; flavor sweet, sub-acid; ripens 20 July in Le Grand, 28 d after Spring Bright and 3 weeks after Spring Candy. Tree: upright; medium vigor; medium; dense; very productive; flowers showy, very large, strong purplish-pink to pale-pink toward the apex; leaf glands medium, opposite, reniform.

Carolina Gold. Yellow-fleshed, late-season, freestone peach. Origin: North Carolina State University, by D.J. Werner and L. Snelling. Biscoe × NC-C5S-067 (Encore × Calanda San Miguel 2383), Calanda San Miquel 2383 is a seed-propagated land race from Spain; tested as NC98-83; introd. 2004. USPP 17,780; 5 Jun. 2007. Fruit: very large; flesh color and quality (texture, flavor, and aroma) excellent; flesh is resistant to oxidative browning; firm, similar to Contender; 50% bright-red blush over golden-yellow ground color; ripens 1 Aug., 7 d after Biscoe. Tree: flower non-showy, self-fertile; blooms 1–2 d before Contender; chilling requirement 1050 h; leaf glands reniform; high flower bud set; moderately resistant to bacterial spot.

Challenger. Yellow-fleshed, freestone peach, for local markets. Origin: North Carolina State University, by D.J. Werner, S.M. Worthington, and L.K. Snelling. Redhaven × bulk pollen of cross of Reliance × Biscoe (NCA001, NCA002, and NCA003); tested as NC-C3-68. USPP 12,375; 29 Jan. 2002. Fruit: size acceptable for early season peach, averaging 6.35 cm; commercially acceptable suture, pubescence, skin color, flesh color, and firmness; flavor and quality is excellent; firmness acceptable for local markets; ripens 1 July, between Redhaven and Norman. Tree: flower non-showy, self-fertile, very cold-hardy; flowers with Redhaven; chilling requirement 950 h; leaf glands reniform; high bud set; reliable producer; highly resistant to bacterial spot.

China Pearl. White-fleshed, freestone peach, low-acid. Origin: North Carolina State University, by D.J. Werner, S.M. Worthington, and L.K. Snelling. Contender × PI 134401, PI 134401 is plant introduction from China; tested as NC-C5S-005. USPP 11,914; 12 Jun. 2001. Fruit: round, very large, commonly exceeding 7.62 cm diameter when properly thinned; heterozygous for honey (D) gene; low-acid; ripens 1 Aug., 7 d after Biscoe. Tree: flower showy, self-fertile, very cold-hardy; blooms after Contender; chill requirement 1100 h; leaf glands reniform; high bud set; reliable producer; moderately susceptible to bacterial spot.

Crimson Princess. Yellow-fleshed, firm, melting, clingstone. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Ruby Diamond × Crimson Lady. USPP 17,776; 29 May 2007. Fruit: globose; uniform; large; dark red over a background of dark yellowish-pink; flesh firm, tough, melting; acidic, sweet; ripens 4 June in Le Grand, 28 d before Ruby Diamond and 5 d after Crimson Lady. Tree: upright; vigorous; medium; dense; very productive; flowers showy, large, self-fertile, light purplish-pink to pale-pink toward the apex; leaf glands small, alternate, globose.

Crimson Rocket. Yellow-fleshed, freestone, pillar peach. Origin: USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, WV, by R. Scorza. KV881465 × MA6-1-90, KV881465= Flavortop × pillar, MA6-1-90 is from Instituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura, Forli, Italy =(Suncrest × K2) × pillar; tested as KV930455. USPP 15,216; 12 Oct. 2004. Fruit: flesh melting, dessert type; flavorful, firm until full-ripe; 80% red blush over yellow ground color; 69–72 mm in diameter; 179 g; sweet with good balance of acidity; ripens late July to early August in Kearneysville. Tree: flower non-showy, self-fertile; blooms late March to mid-April; leaf glands reniform; distinctly columnar growth, branch angles from main axis at 35–40°.

Diamond Candy. Yellow-fleshed, firm, freestone peach. Origin. Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Diamond Ray × unnamed peach. USPP 17,758; 22 May 2007. Fruit: symmetrical; uniform; large; very dark red over dark reddish orange; flesh firm; flavor sub-acid, mild, sweet; ripens 26 June in Le Grand, 8 d after Spring Candy. Tree: upright; vigorous; medium; dense; very productive; flowers showy, large, self-fertile, moderately purplish-pink to pale-pink; leaf glands small, slightly alternate, reniform.

Early Augustprince. Yellow-fleshed, freestone peach. Origin: USDA-ARS, Byron, GA, by W.R. Okie. Sunprince × BY87P943; tested as BY96P2634; introd. 2006. Fruit: larger than Cresthaven; more red color than Sunprince or Cresthaven, 70% to 80% bright red with an attractive yellow ground color; little pubescence; ripens in mid to late July at Byron, with Sunprince, 0–7 d after Cresthaven, 3–7 d before Augustprince. Tree: flower large, showy, self-fertile; chilling requirement 800–850 h; leaf glands globose; moderately resistant to bacterial spot.

Flat Wonderful™. See H28-52-96270.

Galactica. White-fleshed, saucer-shaped, freestone peach. Origin: North Carolina State University, by D.J. Werner and L.K. Snelling. NCN-4 × Hangchow (=saucer peach from China); tested as NC98-42; introd. 2004. USPP 17,118; 26 Sept. 2006. Fruit: moderate flesh acidity, lower than typical commercial cultivars; flesh color and quality (texture, flavor, and aroma) are excellent; firmer than most white fleshed cultivars, similar to China Pearl; 80% bright red blush; ripens 2 July, 2–3 weeks before Contender. Tree: flower showy; blooms 7 d before Contender; chilling requirement 800 h; leaf glands reniform; high flower bud set; susceptible to bacterial spot.

Galaxy. White-fleshed, clingstone, saucer-shaped (peento) peach. Origin: USDA-ARS, Parlier, CA, by D.W. Ramming. P34-106 × D33-1; crossed 1994; tested as Y142-130; introd. 2003. Fruit: oblate; medium to large, 8.3-cm diameter, 142 g, larger than Saturn; flesh clear white; firm; melting; low acid, sweet; 50% red blush; ripens mid-June, with Saturn. Tree: flower showy, self-fertile; blooms 6 d before Springcrest; chilling requirement 600 h; leaf glands globose.

Goodwin. Yellow-fleshed, non-melting, clingstone peach, for canning. Origin: University of California, Davis, by T.M. Gradziel, M.A. Thorpe, J.A. Beutel, R.E. Fenton, V. Beres, and J.F. Doyle. 11, 11-37 × Dr. Davis; tested as R, 7-5 and Early #3. USPP 13,911; 24 Jun. 2003. Fruit: free from red staining at the pit cavity; flesh bright yellow to yellow-gold; flavor, and texture rated superior to Dixon and Andross; skin less pubescent and more uniform golden-yellow color than Andross; ripens 4 d before Andross. Tree: upright-spreading; flower non-showy; mid-season; blooms with Andross; leaf glands reniform.

GP-27. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, late-season, freestone peach. Origin: Sanger, CA, by M.R. Gerawan. Discovered near Sanger. USPP 17,137; 10 Oct. 2006. Fruit: usually asymmetrical; uniform; large; dark red to orange-red covering 25% to 75% of surface over yellow-orange ground color; flesh very firm, fine; flavor sweet, moderate acidity; ripens 23 Aug. in Sanger, 14 d after Autumn Flame. Tree: upright to moderately spreading; moderately vigorous; variable size; productive; flowers showy, large, light to dark pink; leaf glands small to medium, alternate, reniform.

Gulfcrest. Yellow-fleshed, mid-chill, clingstone peach. Origin: Attapulgus, GA, by USDA-ARS, University of Georgia, and University of Florida, by W.B. Sherman, G.W. Krewer, and T.G. Beckman. FL92-8C × Spring Baby; tested as AP98-10; introd. 18 June 2003. USPP 14,685; 13 Apr. 2004. Fruit: large, attractive, 95% blush over yellow ground color; flesh non-melting; recessed tip; ripens early mid-May, a few days after Flordacrest, 62–75 d after bloom. Tree: flower non-showy, self-fertile; blooms with Sunfre, chilling requirement 525 h; leaf glands globose; resistant to bacterial spot.

Gulfcrimson. Yellow-fleshed, mid-chill, clingstone peach. Origin: Attapulgus, GA, by USDA-ARS, University of Georgia, and University of Florida, by T.G. Beckman, G.W. Krewer, J.X. Chaparro, and W.B. Sherman. AP96-8 × AP98-5; tested as AP01-7; introd. 2007. USPP applied for. Fruit: large, attractive; 80% blush over yellow ground color; flesh non-melting; ripens late May, 90–95 d after bloom, with June Gold. Tree: flower showy; self-fertile; blooms just before Sunlite nectarine; chilling requirement 400 h; leaf glands reniform; resistant to bacterial spot.

Gulfking. Yellow-fleshed, mid-chill, clingstone peach. Origin: Attapulgus, GA, by USDA-ARS, University of Georgia, and University of Florida, by W.B. Sherman, G.W. Krewer, and T.G. Beckman. BY87P285 × UFGold; tested as AP98-4; introd. 2003. USPP 14,483; 27 Jan. 2004. Fruit: round, recessed tip; mostly red over yellow-orange ground color; few split pits; ripens early May with Flordaking, 73–80 d after bloom. Tree: flower showy; self-fertile; blooms with Flordaking, chilling requirement 350 h; leaf glands reniform; resistant to bacterial spot.

H28-52-96270 (Flat Wonderful™). Yellow-fleshed, clingstone, saucer-shaped peach. Origin: Rutgers University, by J. Goffreda and A. Voordeckers. B7-6-151-752080 × NJF4. USPP 16,836; 18 July 2006. Fruit: medium, much wider than long; oblate; transverse section nearly rounded with a very shallow suture; base truncated, indented; mottled red over color with an orange under color; flesh yellow-orange; flavor sweet, spicy; ripens late July to early August in Upper Freehold, with Redhaven. Tree: vigorous; redleaf; flower showy, self-fertile; leaf glands reniform.

Intrepid. Yellow-fleshed, freestone peach, for local markets. Origin: North Carolina State University, by D.J. Werner, S.M. Worthington, and L.K. Snelling; Redhaven × [NCA001, NCA002, and NCA003 bulk (Reliance × Biscoe)]; tested as NC-C3-69. USPP 12,357; 15 Jan. 2002. Fruit: acceptable for mid-season, averaging 6.6 cm; acceptable suture, pubescence, skin color, flesh color, and firmness; flavor and quality is excellent; firmness acceptable for local markets only; ripens 7 July, between Norman and Winblo, and 7 d after Challenger. Tree: flower non-showy, self-fertile, very cold-hardy; blooms after Redhaven and before Contender; chilling requirement 1000 h; leaf glands reniform; moderately resistant to bacterial spot; high bud set; reliable producer.

Ivory Duchess. White-fleshed, firm, clingstone peach. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Unnamed nectarine × unnamed peach. USPP 17,282. 19 Dec. 2006. Fruit: symmetrical; uniform; large; very deep red mottled over a dark pink background; flesh firm, crisp, melting; flavor sub-acid; ripens 1 June in Le Grand, 28 d before Spring Bright. Tree: spreading; vigorous; medium; dense; very productive; flowers showy, large, light purplish pink to pale-pink toward the apex; leaf glands small, alternate, globose.

Late Ross. Yellow-fleshed, non-melting, clingstone peach for canning. Origin: University of California, Davis, by B.H. Tsuji, T.M. Dejong, and J.F. Doyle. Ross limb mutation. USPP 11,208; 8 Feb. 2000. Fruit: very similar to Ross; distinct red stripe on suture line of mature fruit; ripens 10 d after Ross. Tree: flower showy; blooms early to mid-season, 2 d after Ross; leaf glands reniform.

Lilleland. Yellow-fleshed, non-melting, clingstone peach, for canning. Origin: University of California, Davis, by T.M. Gradziel, M.A. Thorpe, J.A. Beutel, R.F. Fenton, V. Beres, and C.F. Weeks. R, 13-33 × O.P.; tested as F10EN, 6-27. USPP 13,028; 1 Oct. 2002. Fruit: relative to Halford, firmer and free from red staining at the pit cavity, of similar size; pit smaller than Halford, greater processing case yield; lower frequency of pit fragments; SS similar to Halford; fruit skin less pubescent than Halford, more uniform yellow-gold than Halford; ripens with Halford. Tree: flower showy; blooms mid- to late-season; same chilling requirement as Halford chill hours; leaf glands reniform; spreading to upright-spreading.

Messina™. See NJ352.

MSUP8706 (Beaumont™). Yellow-fleshed, freestone peach. Origin: Michigan State University, by A. Iezzoni and W. Shane. SH424 × Fayette; tested as MSU26; introd. 2003. USPP 18,139; 23 Oct. 2007. Fruit: uniform; globose to slightly oblong; large; 60% to 80% medium dark solid/slightly striped blush on yellow background; melting; freestone; very good firmness for shipping market; flavor sweet, moderate acidity; ripens with Loring, 18 d after Redhaven. Tree: flower non-showy, self-fertile; leaf glands globose; medium spreading; productive; fruit harvested with few pickings.

NJ352 (Messina™). Yellow-fleshed, late-season, freestone peach. Origin: Rutgers University, by J. Goffreda and A. Voordeckers. D90-9 nectarine × NJ318; tested as NJ352, D101-62. USPP 18,091; 25 Sept. 2007. Fruit: large; round and slightly depressed at point; bright orange-red over color with a yellow-orange under color; flavor sweet, moderately acidic; ripens mid- to late August in Upper Freehold, NJ, with Cresthaven. Tree: flower non-showy, self-fertile; leaf glands reniform; vigorous.

NJ353 (Vitoria™). Yellow-fleshed, freestone peach. Origin: Rutgers University, by J. Goffreda and A. Voordeckers. Biscoe × Fairtime; tested as NJ353, G47-122. USPP 18,134; 23 Oct. 2007. Fruit: large; round, slightly depressed at point; red over color with a yellow-orange under color; flesh yellow-orange; adhesion freestone; flavor sweet, moderately acidic, ripens early to mid-September in Upper Freehold, NJ, 14 d after Laurol. Tree: flower showy, self-fertile; leaf glands reniform; moderately vigorous.

P.F. 11 Peach. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, mid-season, freestone peach. Origin: Coloma, MI, by P.J. Friday. Parentage unknown. USPP 17,054; 22 Aug. 2006. Fruit: spherical; red over 85% with a yellow ground color; flesh firm, non-melting; flavor excellent; ripens 1 Aug. in Coloma. Tree: spreading; medium vigor; medium; medium density; very good production; flowers non-showy, pink; leaf glands almost flat with limited dishing; resistant to brown rot (Monilinia fructicola), bacterial spot.

P.F. 19-007. Yellow-fleshed, firm, freestone peach. Origin: Coloma, MI, by P.J. Friday. Parentage unknown. USPP 17,578; 10 Apr. 2007. Fruit: true spherical shape; average; red covers 90% of surface over yellow; flesh extremely firm, non-melting, free of fiber; flavor very good; ripens 22 Aug. in Coloma, a few days before P.F. 23. Tree: spreading; medium vigor; medium; medium density; very good production; flowers non-showy, pink; leaf glands round; resistant to brown rot, bacterial spot.

P.F. 22-007. Yellow-fleshed, firm, mid to late-season, freestone peach. Origin: Coloma, MI, by P.J. Friday. Parentage unknown. USPP 16,663; 20 June 2006. Fruit: spherical; red covers 80% of surface over yellow; flesh firm, non-melting, free of fiber; flavor excellent, very sweet; ripens 23 Aug. in Coloma, after Redhaven. Tree: spreading; medium vigor; medium; medium density; good production; flowers non-showy, light pink; leaf glands oval; resistant to bacterial spot.

P.F. 5D Big. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, very early maturing, semi-cling peach. Origin: Coloma, MI, by P.J. Friday. Parentage unknown. USPP 17,543; 3 Apr. 2007. Fruit: spherical; large; red covers 85% of surface over yellow ground color; flesh firm, non-melting, free of fiber; flavor very good; ripens 21 July in Coloma. Tree: moderately spreading; medium vigor; medium; medium density; good production; flowers showy, small, pink; leaf glands elongated cup; resistant to brown rot and bacterial spot.

P.F. 7A Freestone. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, early maturing, freestone peach. Origin: Coloma, MI, by P.J. Friday. Parentage unknown. USPP 17,045; 22 Aug. 2006. Fruit: spherical; red covers 90% of surface over yellow ground color; flesh firm, non-melting; flavor very good; ripens 12 July in Coloma. Tree: moderately upright; vigorous; medium; medium density; good production; flowers showy, pink; leaf glands extremely small, cupped, notably located on the top side of petiole; resistant to brown rot and bacterial spot.

P.F. Lucky 12. Yellow-fleshed, very firm, mid-season, freestone peach. Origin: Coloma, MI, by P.J. Friday. Parentage unknown. USPP 17,938; 21 Aug. 2007. Fruit: spherical; dark red covers 95% of surface over yellow ground color; flesh firm, non-melting, free of fiber; flavor excellent; ripens 3 Aug. in Coloma, 3 d after Redhaven. Tree: spreading; medium vigor; medium; medium density; good production; flowers non-showy, pink; leaf glands cupped; resistant to brown rot and bacterial leaf and fruit spot.

Peach Tree. White-fleshed, firm, early season, peento, clingstone peach. Origin: Modesto, CA, by G.N. Zaiger, L.M Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. 33LH428 × O.P. USPP 16,179; 3 Jan. 2006. Fruit: peento, medium; red covers 60% of surface over yellow ground color; flesh firm, meaty; flavor very good; ripens 21 May in Modesto. Tree: upright; vigorous; large; medium density; productive; flowers large, red-pink; leaf glands medium to large, reniform.

Plawhite 5. White-fleshed, medium-firm, very early season, clingstone peach. Origin: Cartaya (Huelva), Spain, by I.A. Rubio. Seedling of two unnamed parents. USPP 17,182; 7 Nov. 2006. Fruit: slightly flat; uniform; medium; red covering 80% to 85% of surface over yellow-green ground color; flesh medium-firm, melting; flavor sweet; ripens 15 Apr. in Cartaya (Huelva), 65 d before Snow Queen. Tree: upright to upright spreading; average; flowers showy; leaf glands reniform.

S 5848. Yellow-fleshed, freestone peach. Origin: Angers, France, by R. Monet. Parentage unknown. USPP 17,457; 27 Feb. 2007 Fruit: broad oblate; large; greyed-orange covers 90% of surface over yellow ground color; flesh fine texture, softy, very juicy; flavor sweet; ripens late August in Parker, WA. Tree: spreading; moderately vigorous; flowers red-purple.

Snow Duchess. White-fleshed, firm, freestone peach. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Snow Princess × Crimson Lady. USPP 17,281; 19 Dec. 2006. Fruit: globose; uniform; large; very deep red smoothly blending to a moderate pink background; flesh firm, tough, melting; very sweet, sub-acid; ripens 4 Aug. in Le Grand, 60 d after Crimson Lady. Tree: upright; medium vigor; medium; dense; very productive; flowers showy, large, self-fertile, strong purplish-pink to pale-pink toward the apex; leaf glands medium, alternate, reniform.

Spring Princess. Yellow-fleshed, melting, clingstone peach. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Early Peach × O.P. USPP 17,750; 22 May 2007. Fruit: symmetrical; uniform; very large; very deep red mottled into moderate reddish-orange along the sides blending into moderate orange-yellow; flesh melting; flavor mildly acidic, pronounced peach; ripens 26 May in Le Grand, 8 d before Crimson Lady. Tree: upright; vigorous; medium; dense; productive; flowers showy, large, self-fertile, pale purplish-pink to pale-pink; leaf glands small, alternate, globose.

Sugarpeach II. Yellow-fleshed, firm, clingstone peach. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Coral Princess × unnamed nectarine. USPP 18,027; 11 Sept. 2007. Fruit: globose; uniform; large; very deep red mottled over a moderate red orange; flesh firm, crisp, meaty; flavor mild, sub-acid; ripens 24 June in Le Grand. Tree: spreading; vigorous; large; dense; productive; flowers showy, large, moderately purplish pink to pale-pink toward the apex; leaf glands small, globose.

Super Zee. Yellow-fleshed, firm, very early season, clingstone peach. Origin: Modesto, CA, by G.N. Zaiger, L.M Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. Early Peach × O.P. USPP 17,874; 17 July 2007. Fruit: globose; medium; red over yellow; flesh firm; flavor good; ripens 26 Apr. in Modesto, 14 d before Snow Angel. Tree: upright; vigorous; large; productive; medium dense; flowers showy, large, self-fertile, red pink; leaf glands globose.

Sweet Henry. Yellow-fleshed, firm, clingstone peach. Origin: Modesto, CA, by G.N. Zaiger, L.M Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. 226LK410 × O.P. USPP 16,068; 25 Oct. 2005. Fruit: globose; large; red over yellow; flesh firm, meaty; flavor excellent, mild, sweet, sub-acid; ripens 11 Aug. in Modesto, 7 d after O'Henry, 50 d after Amparo. Tree: upright; vigorous; large; medium-dense; productive; flowers showy, large, red-pink; leaf glands small, reniform.

Sweet-N-UP. Yellow-fleshed, upright, freestone peach. Origin: USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, WV, by R. Scorza. KV882304 × BO87021003, BO87021003 =Firered × pillar made at Univ. of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; tested as KV930278. USPP 15,063; 3 Aug. 2004. Fruit: 80% red blush over a yellow ground color; flesh melting; dessert type; flavorful; firm until full-ripe, ripens late-July to early August in Kearneysville. Tree: flower non-showy, self-fertile; blooms late March to mid-April; leaf glands reniform; upright with 45° branch angles.

TexKing. Yellow-fleshed, mid-chill, clingstone peach. Origin: Texas A&M University, by D.H. Byrne and T.A. Bacon. Goldprince × TX3290-2; tested as TX2B6. USPP 14,627; 23 Mar. 2004. Fruit: large; yellow ground color, high red blush; high firmness; ripens early May, 7–10 d after Flordaking, 8–11 d before Texstar. Tree: flower showy, self-fertile; blooms with FlordaKing, 13 d before Texstar; chilling requirements 400 h; leaf glands globose; semi-spreading; moderately resistant to bacterial spot.

TexPrince. Yellow-fleshed, mid-chill, clingstone peach. Origin: Texas A&M University, by D.H. Byrne and T.A. Bacon. Flordaking × P60-12; tested as TX3592-7. USPP 14,629; 23 Mar. 2004. Fruit: round to ovate; yellow ground color, 60% to 80% red blush; flesh melting, yellow with some red speckling, freestone; as attractive as Juneprince and TexRoyal, more attractive than Texstar or La Feliciana; fruit flesh does not brown readily; no tendency to develop split pits; ripens with or after Juneprince and TexRoyal, 14 d after Texstar, Tree: flower non-showy, self-fertile; blooms 6–8 d after Flordaking, 4 d before Texstar; leaf glands reniform; moderately resistant to bacterial spot.

Thai Tiger TXW1193-1. Yellow-fleshed, low-chill, clingstone peach. Origin: Texas A&M University, by D.H. Byrne. Parentage unknown; tested as TXW1193-1; introd. 2006. Fruit: firm; medium to large for season; round, flattened tip; yellow ground color, 60% to 80% red blush; flesh melting, yellow, does not brown readily; does not show tendency for split pits; ripens late April, 7 d before Tropic Beauty. Tree: flower showy, self-fertile; blooms early February in Texas with Tropic Beauty; chilling requirement 100–200 h; leaf glands reniform.

Thai Tiger TXW1490-1. Yellow-fleshed, low-chill, clingstone peach. Origin: Texas A&M University, by D.H. Byrne. TropicBeauty × selfed; tested as TXW1490-1; introd. 2006. Fruit: firm; medium to large for season; round with flattened tip; yellow ground color, 60% to 80% red blush; flesh yellow, melting, does not brown readily; does not show tendency for split pits; ripens mid-May, 7 d after Tropic Beauty in Weslaco. Tree: flower showy, self-fertile; blooms early February in Texas with or slightly after Tropic Beauty; chilling requirement 100–200 h; leaf glands reniform.

Thai Tiger TXW1491-1. Yellow-fleshed, low-chill, clingstone peach. Origin: Texas A&M University, by D.H. Byrne. TropicBeauty × selfed; tested as TXW1491-1; introd. 2006. Fruit: firm; medium to large for season; round with flattened tip; yellow ground color, 60% to 80% red blush; flesh yellow, melting, does not brown readily; does not show tendency for split pits; ripens mid-May in Weslaco, about 14 d after Tropic Beauty. Tree: flower showy, self-fertile; blooms early February in Texas with or after Tropic Beauty; chilling requirement 100–200 h; leaf glands reniform.

Thai Tiger TXW1C4. Yellow-fleshed, low-chill, clingstone peach. Origin: Texas A&M University, by D.H. Byrne. Tropic Beauty × selfed; tested as TXW1C4; introd. 2006. Fruit: firm; medium to large for season; round with flattened tip; yellow ground color, 60% to 80% red blush, flesh yellow, melting, does not brown readily; does not show tendency for split pits; ripens early May with Tropic Beauty. Tree: flower showy, self-fertile; blooms late January in Texas before Tropic Beauty; chilling requirement 100–200 h; leaf glands reniform.

TropicPeachOne (TropicPrince). Yellow-fleshed, low-chill, clingstone peach. Origin: Texas A&M University, by D.H. Byrne. TropicBeauty × selfed; tested as TXW1194-1. USPP 12,965; 17 Sept. 2002. Fruit: round with flattened tip; yellow ground color, 40% to 80% red blush; flesh yellow, melting, does not brown readily; does not show tendency for split pits; ripens mid-April to mid-May after Flordaprince, before TropicBeauty. Tree: flower showy, self-fertile; flower and leaf budbreak with Flordaprince and Tropic Beauty; chilling requirement 150 h; leaf glands reniform; semi-spreading.

TropicPrince. See TropicPeachOne.

TruGold. Yellow-fleshed, freestone peach, propagated by seed. Origin: Washington State University and USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, WV, by T.K. Toyama and R. Scorza. Haploid seedling of P-2-1 (=Redhaven × Veefreeze); doubled with colchicine; tested as P-21-5-1n (haploid form); P21-5-2n. PVP 200400055; 7 Aug. 2006. Fruit: medium-large; round; medium blush; very firm; attractive; fair quality; ripens 14 d after Redhaven. Tree: flower non-showy, self-fertile; produces seedlings with identical fruit and tree type.

UFBeauty. Yellow-fleshed, non-melting, clingstone peach. Origin: University of Florida, by W.B. Sherman. Fla. 90-50CN × UFGold; tested as Fla. 98-1C. USPP 14,784; 18 May 2004. Fruit: firm; uniform; attractive; symmetrical shape; attractive, 90% to 100% red skin with darker red stripes; ripens early May at Gainesville, 4 d after UFGold; 80–85 d from full bloom. Tree: flower showy, self-fertile; chilling requirement 200 h; leaf glands reniform; highly vigorous; semi-spreading; high resistance to bacterial spot.

UFBlaze. Yellow-fleshed, non-melting, clingstone peach. Origin: University of Florida, by W.B. Sherman. Fla. 90-50CN × UFGold; tested as Fla. 97-5C. USPP 14,898; 15 June 2004. Fruit: uniformly large for early season; attractive bright red over deep yellow ground color; no red pigment at pit; high quality; firm; ripens early to mid-May at Gainesville, 80–85 d from full bloom. Tree: flower showy, self-fertile; chilling requirement 300 h; leaf glands reniform; highly vigorous; semi-spreading; high resistance to bacterial spot.

UFSun. Yellow-fleshed, non-melting, clingstone peach. Origin: University of Florida, by W.B. Sherman. Fla. 90-50CN × UFGold; tested as Fla. 97-20C. USPP 14,764; 4 May 2004. Fruit: uniformly medium-large for season; 50% (with darker stripes) red; no red pigment at pit; very firm; excellent flavor; ripens late April with Flordaprince at Immokalee and Gainesville, 80 d from full bloom. Tree: flower showy, self-fertile; chilling requirement 100–150 h; leaf glands reniform; highly vigorous; semi-spreading; high resistance to bacterial spot.

V75024. Yellow-fleshed, firm to very firm, non-melting, mid- to late-season, clingstone peach. Origin: Vineland Station, Ontario, Canada, by N. Miles. Suncling × NJC 81. USPP 16,469; 25 Apr. 2006. Fruit: rounded; very good uniformity; 75% dark red over cream-yellow; flesh firm to very firm, non-melting; flavor intermediate acidity; ripens 6 Sept. in Vineland, Ontario, 2–5 d after Babygold 5. Tree: semi-erect to horizontal; very vigorous; comparable to Babygold 5; very productive; flowers showy, large, light pink; leaf glands very small, reniform; moderately resistant to canker resistant to bacterial spot.

Vitall. Yellow-fleshed, non-melting clingstone peach, for canning. Origin: Dept. Plant Agriculture–Vineland Station, Univ. Guelph, Vineland, Ontario, by J. Subramanian, N.W. Miles, and W.L. Lay. NJC95 × V68051; tested as V851610; introd. 2006. Fruit: medium-dense; firm; free of red color at pit; good for late-season; ripens 6–8 d after Babygold 7. Tree: flower non-showy; self-fertile; leaf glands reniform; moderate resistance to Cytospora canker (Cytospora spp.), susceptible to bacterial spot.

Vista Snow. White-fleshed, firm, early season, clingstone peach. Origin: Modesto, CA, by G.N. Zaiger, L.M Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. 174LE309 × 2LD470. USPP 16,845; 8 July, 2006. Fruit: globose; medium; 70% red over yellow; flesh firm; flavor mild, sub-acid, very good; ripens 5 May in Modesto. Tree: upright; vigorous; large; medium-dense; productive; flowers showy, large, red-pink; leaf glands medium, reniform.

Vitoria™. See NJ353.

Vollie. Yellow-fleshed, freestone peach. Origin: Dept. Plant Agriculture–Vineland Station, Univ. Guelph, Vineland, Ontario, by J. Subramanian, N.W. Miles, W.L. Lay, and O. Bradt. Redskin × Kalhaven; tested as V55061; introd. 2006. Fruit: excellent color and taste for season; little red around pit; ripens 7 Sept. in Vineland with Bounty and Cresthaven. Tree: flower non-showy; self-fertile; leaf glands reniform; moderate resistance to Cytospora canker, susceptible to bacterial spot.

PEACH ROOTSTOCK

Thomas G. Beckman

USDA-ARS Southeastern Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory, Byron, GA

Castore. Clonal peach × almond hybrid rootstock for peach. Origin: University of Pisa, Italy, by F. Loreti and R. Massai. GF557 (peach × almond hybrid) × O.P.; tested as I.S. 5/19; introd. 2006. Plant: readily propagated via tissue culture; poor rooting via cuttage or trench layering. Rootstock performance: adapted to fertile, permeable soils; does poorly in heavy soils prone to waterlogging; adapted to low fertility soils; performs similar to GF677; budded trees display moderate vigor, 70% less than GF677; tolerant to lime-induced chlorosis, slightly less than that of GF677; fruit production and quality typically superior GF677; suggested as alternative where the vigor of GF677 is difficult to manage.

Felinem. Compatible with peach. Described under Almond Rootstock.

Garnem. Compatible with peach. Described under Almond Rootstock.

Monegro. Compatible with peach. Described under Almond Rootstock.

Polluce. Clonal peach × almond hybrid rootstock for peach. Origin: University of Pisa, Italy, by F. Loreti and R. Massai. GF557 (peach × almond hybrid) × O.P.; tested as I.S. 5/8; introd. 2006. Plant: readily propagated via tissue culture, poor rooting via cuttage or trench layering. Rootstock performance: best adapted to permeable soils with medium fertility, does poorly in heavy soils prone to waterlogging; budded trees display moderate vigor, 80% less than GF677; tolerant to lime-induced chlorosis, similar to GF677; fruit production and quality superior to GF677; suggested as alternative where the vigor of GF677 is difficult to manage.

Sharpe. Clonal plum hybrid rootstock for peach. Origin: USDA-ARS, Byron, GA and University of Florida, by R. Sharpe (UFL), T. Beckman (USDA-ARS), J. Chaparro (UFL), and W. Sherman (UFL). P. angustifolia × unknown species; discovered in Florida; tested as FLA1-1; introd. 2007. Plant: readily propagated by softwood and hardwood cuttings; unbudded tree semi-upright, medium vigor; leaves green; glands small, globose; flowers self-infertile, small, white, showy, anthers yellow; blooms in Georgia with peach cultivars with chilling requirements of 500 h; fruit small, 3–4 cm; clingstone; flesh yellow; skin yellow; ripens 110 d from bloom. Rootstock performance: budded trees display moderate vigor, 60% less than trees budded on seedling peach; more resistant to armillaria root rot (Armillaria tabescens) than Guardian; resistance to peach tree short life similar to Guardian; resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita and M. floridensis), similar to Nemaguard and Flordaguard, respectively; suggested for armillaria root rot infested sites.

PEAR—ASIAN

Joseph D. Postman

USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, OR

Sooyoung. A mid-season, medium-size Asian pear with high soluble solids. Origin: National Horticultural Research Institute, Suwon, South Korea, by I.S. Shin, H.S. Hwang, Y.U. Shin, and W.C. Kim. Niitaka × Soohwangbae; crossed 1989; selected 1994 as 89-24-6, tested as Wonkyo Na-36; released 2006. Fruit: medium, 430 g; roundish-oblate; skin bright yellow-brown; flesh very juicy, little grit, firmer than Niitaka, 15.0° brix, acidity 0.093%; ripens late September in Suwon, 7 d before Niitaka; fruit can be stored 120 d at 4 °C. Tree: medium vigor; upright-spreading; begins fruiting in third season on P. pyrifolia rootstock; blooms 4 d after Niitaka; many fruiting spurs; susceptible to pear scab (Venturia nashicola).

PEAR—EUROPEAN

Joseph D. Postman

USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, OR

AC Harrow Crisp™. See HW610.

AC Harrow Gold™. See HW616.

Ambrosia™. See H2-169.

Green Jade™. See P448-2.

H2-169. An early-midseason European dessert pear with large fruit size. Origin: Purdue University, by J. Janick. US571 × Honeysweet; crossed 1978; selected 1993; released 2006. USPP 16,759; 4 July 2006. Fruit: pyriform, 120 mm long by 90 mm wide; stem short, 19 mm, stout; skin green-yellow with occasional orange blush, thin, glossy, light russet; flesh yellow-white, moderately juicy, developing buttery texture and slight aroma when ripe, SS 13% to 15%; small core; harvest mid-August in Lafayette; can be stored 6 weeks at 1 °C. Tree: vigorous; rounded, spreading; bears annually; tolerant to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora), similar to Honeysweet.

HW610. An attractive, mid-season, fresh market pear with high fire blight resistance. Origin: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ontario, by D.M. Hunter, F. Kappel, H.A. Quamme, and W.G. Bonn. Bartlett × US56112-146; crossed 1972; selected 1979; released 2002. USPP 17,843; 3 July 2007. Fruit: pyriform, symmetrical; similar to Bartlett, 84 mm long, 65 mm diam.; IPGRI shape category 5.2; skin golden-yellow, smooth with red blush and little russet; flesh white to cream color, fine texture, free of grit, mild flavor, little juice, remaining firm and crisp when ripe; matures late August to early September in Harrow, 5 d after Bartlett; can be stored 8 weeks at 1 °C. Tree: moderate vigor; upright; conical; cold hardy to at least –29 °C; annual bearing, greater fruit production than Bartlett; good fire blight resistance, similar to Kieffer and Harrow Sweet; blooms with Bartlett; sets reasonable crop of parthenocarpic fruit in absence of pollinizers; comparable quality and more attractive than Bartlett or Harrow Sweet; acceptable for commercial processing.

HW616. An early season, fresh market pear with excellent fire blight resistance. Origin: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ontario, by D.M. Hunter, F. Kappel, H.A. Quamme, and W.G. Bonn. Harvest Queen × Harrow Delight; crossed 1975; selected 1987; released 2002. USPP 16,124; 22 Nov. 2005. Fruit: pyriform, symmetrical; slightly smaller than Bartlett, 81 mm long, 59 mm diam., IPGRI shape category 5.2 or 5.4; skin golden yellow, trace of blush, very little russet; flesh cream color, very juicy, very little grit, good sugar-acid balance and flavor; matures mid-August in Harrow, 13 d before Bartlett. Tree: medium vigor; upright to spreading; annually productive; cold hardy to at least –29 °C; precocity similar to Bartlett with slightly lower production; good fire blight resistance, slightly better than Kieffer, similar to Harrow Delight and Harvest Queen; blooms 2 d before Bartlett; can be pollinated by Bartlett, Seckel, Old Home, and Harvest Queen; fruit quality and appearance comparable to Bartlett, Harrow Delight, and Harvest Queen; acceptable for commercial processing.

P448-2. An early season European pear with large fruit and some tolerance to fire blight. Origin: Purdue University, by J. Janick. US386 × NJ3; selected 1975; released 2004. USPP 14,034; 29 July 2003. Fruit: oblong to ovate; symmetrical; consistently large for season, typically 76 mm long, 71 mm wide; stem long, 39 mm, stout with no cavity; skin yellow-green, slight russet at calyx end, thin, moderately shiny; flesh yellow-white, crisp, juicy, becomes buttery, SS 11.8%; ripens on tree early August in south Indiana; can be stored several weeks at 1 °C. Tree: moderate vigor; upright to spreading; productive; fire blight tolerance similar to Honeysweet; suitable for home gardens.

PECAN

L.J. Grauke and T.E. Thompson

USDA-ARS Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, College Station, TX

Gafford. Scab-resistant pecan for home plantings and low-input orchards. Origin: Black Rock, AL, by D. Gafford. Parentage unknown; selected 1986; tested at Auburn University. Nuts: oblong, slightly ovate, acute apex, rounded base, round in cross section; 123 nuts/kg, 50% kernel. Kernels: cream color, medium-wide, shallow dorsal grooves. Tree: protandrous bloom pattern, incomplete dichogamy, midseason pollen shed, midseason pistil receptivity; 50% shuck split about 20 Oct. in central Alabama; may overbear on older trees, producing nuts with lower quality; excellent resistance to pecan scab (Fusicladosporium effusum).

Lakota. Disease-resistant pecan with early maturing, high-quality nuts. Origin: USDA-ARS, Brownwood, TX, by T.E. Thompson, L.J. Grauke, and W. Reid. Mahan × Major; crossed 1964; selected 1985; tested as 64-6-502; released cooperatively by USDA-ARS and Kansas State University in 2007. Nut: oblong, elliptic with acute apex, rounded base, round in cross-section; 130 nuts/kg, 62% kernel. Kernels: cream to golden color, medium, non-trapping dorsal grooves, slight basal cleft, nuts shell out easily into full halves, very attractive. Tree: vigorous; upright, strong limb angles, wind-resistant structure; begins spring growth with Kanza and Pawnee; protogynous, with early to mid-season receptivity and mid-to late-season pollen shed (similar to Kanza); nuts mature early, with Giles, about 14 d after Pawnee; resistant to pecan scab; medium susceptibility to yellow and black aphids (Monelliopsis pecanis and Melanocallis caryoefoliae, respectively).

PERSIAN WALNUT

Gale McGranahan

Walnut Improvement Program, University of California, Davis, CA

Sexton. Walnut bears heavily at a young age, produces jumbo-sized nuts with a strong well-filled shell and easily removed, light to extra light colored kernels. Origin: University of California, Davis, by G. McGranahan and C. Leslie. UC85-8 × Chandler; crossed 1990; selected 2000; tested as UC90-31-10; introd. 2004. USPP 16,496; 2 May 2006. Nut: smooth, round solid shells; yield 53% kernel; seals may be weak in young trees; kernels, 8.6 g, plump, light to extra light color. Tree: bears terminally and laterally; precocious, heavy yield; moderate vigor; leafs out early, harvest mid-season; pollen shedding and pistillate bloom overlap; some neck buds and narrowly forked branches; may be suitable for hedgerows; low occurrence of blight, (Xanthomonas campestris pv. juglandis).

Gillet. Large, vigorous walnut tree, bears heavily at young age, produces jumbo-sized nuts with light colored kernels that are easily removed. Origin: University of California, Davis, by G. McGranahan and C. Leslie. UC76-80 × Chico; crossed 1995; selected 2002; tested as UC95-22-26; introd. 2004. USPP 17,135; 10 Oct. 2006. Nut: relatively smooth, round; yield 51% kernel; seals may be weak in young trees; kernels, 8.0 g, easily removed as halves; light colored with little shrivel or veins. Tree: large; bears terminally and laterally; precocious; heavy yield; high vigor; protogynous; leafs out early; harvest mid-season; very low occurrence of blight.

Forde. Large, vigorous walnut tree, bears heavily at young age, produces jumbo sized nuts that easily yield halves with light to extra light color. Origin: University of California, Davis, by G. McGranahan and C. Leslie. UC61-25 × Chico; cross made in 1995; selected 2001; tested as UC95-26-37; introd. 2004. USPP 16,495; 2 May, 2006. Nut: smooth, slightly oval; yield 53% kernel; shells and seals strong; kernels, 8.6 g, plump, light to extra light color, little shrivel or veins, easily removed as halves. Tree: bears terminally and laterally; precocious; heavy yield; high vigor; protogynous; leafs out mid-season and harvests mid- to late-season; very low occurrence of blight.

PLUM AND PLUM HYBRIDS

David W. Ramming

USDA-ARS, Crop Diseases, Pests and Genetics, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA

92-110-69. A mid-season, large, red-purple skin, yellow flesh European plum with very high sugar content for fresh market. Origin: McFarland, CA, by T.F. Bourne. Empress × Moyer Perfecto; crossed 1993; selected 1997. USPP 16,190; 10 Jan. 2006. Fruit: large, 41-mm diameter, 52 g; skin reddish-purple, glabrous; flesh yellow; 23.2% SS; clingstone; ripe 15–22 July, 14 d after Empress. Tree: upright; heavy, precocious, bearing on 2- to 3-year-old trees; self-fertile; anthers yellow; blooms 15–26 Mar. in Delano.

Amigo II. A mid-season, red skin, yellow flesh, interspecific plum. Origin: Zaiger Genetics, Inc., Modesto, CA, by G.N. Zaiger, L.M. Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. Flavor Grenade × O.P.; selected 2000. USPP 17,832; 26 June 2007. Fruit: medium, 57-mm diameter, 136 g; slightly elongated; skin red, glabrous; flesh yellow; 17.6% SS; clingstone; ripe 12–17 July, 10 d after Dapple Fire. Tree: large; vigorous; upright; productive, regular producer; self-infertile; anthers yellow to yellow red; blooms 26 Feb. to 9 Mar. in Modesto; chilling requirement 750 h.

Black Delight. An early ripening, dark red skin, yellow flesh, Japanese plum. Origin: Sanger, CA, by M. Gerawan. Parentage unknown; selected 2001. USPP 17,881; 24 July 2007. Fruit: medium, 52–59 mm diameter; oblate; skin dark red, glabrous; flesh yellow; freestone; ripe 10–15 June, 2–3 d before Black Beaut. Tree: medium; very good vigor; upright and spreading; regular bearing with good production; self-infertile; anther yellow brown; blooms 23 Feb. in Sanger.

Black Glow. A mid-season, deep blackish-purple skin, yellow flesh Japanese plum. Origin: DCA–University of Bologna, Italy, by S. Sansavini, S. Lugli, R. Correale, and U. Palara. Suplumsix × O.P.; crossed 1986; tested as 86.804.004; introd. 2002. Fruit: medium-large, 57-mm diameter, 90–100 g; round; skin deep, blackish-purple, glabrous; flesh yellow; semi-clingstone; 14.2% to 16.4% SS; ripe mid-July in Bologna, 2 d before Blackamber, 8–10 d after Shiro. Tree: medium vigor; upright; early bearing, productive; self-infertile; anthers yellow; blooms mid-March in Bologna, with Suplumtwelve.

Black Sunrise. Mid-season, purplish-brown skin, yellow flesh Japanese plum. Origin: DCA–University of Bologna, Italy, by S. Sansavini, S. Lugli, R. Correale, and U. Palara; (Suplumsix × Suplumthirteen) × O.P.; crossed 1986; tested as 86.803.013; introd. 2002. Fruit: medium, 59-mm diameter, 40–50 g; oblate, symmetrical; skin purplish-brown, glabrous; flesh yellow, very juicy; 17.2% to 19.3% SS; semi-clingstone; ripe after mid-July in Bologna, 15 d after Shiro. Tree: vigorous; spreading; early bearing, very productive; self-infertile; anthers yellow; blooms mid-March in Bologna, 2–4 d before Shiro.

Candy Stripe. A mid-season, yellow-red skin, yellow flesh interspecific plum. Origin: Zaiger Genetics, Inc., Modesto, CA, by G.N. Zaiger, L.M. Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. 25EB128 (King David × 4G1180 plumcot) × Autumn Giant; selected 1989. USPP 17,828; 26 June 2007. Fruit: medium; 61 mm diameter, 122 g; globose; skin yellow-red, glabrous; flesh yellow; 16.3% SS; clingstone; ripe 19–26 July Tree: large; vigorous; upright; productive and regular producer; self-infertile; anthers yellow; blooms 24 Feb. to 6 Mar. in Modesto; chilling requirement 450 to 500 h.

Constanza. A very late ripening, black skin, yellow-green flesh Japanese plum. Origin: Santiago, Chile, by J.D.G. Huidobro. Larry Anne × Suplumsix; crossed 1990. USPP 17,637; 24 Apr. 2007. Fruit: medium-large, 66–70 mm diameter, 120–140 g; round to slightly oblate; skin black, many lenticels, russet with tendency to crack, glabrous; flesh yellow-green; semi-clingstone; 16% SS; ripe 20 Mar. to 10 Apr. in Maipo Valley, Chile, 30 d after Suplumsix. Tree: very large; vigorous; very upright; self-infertile; blooms 16–23 Aug. in Maipo Valley.

Flavor Finale. A late-season, reddish-maroon skin, reddish-yellow flesh, interspecific plum. Origin: Zaiger Genetics, Inc., Modesto, CA, by G.N. Zaiger, L.M. Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. 57RC99 =(King David, Queen Ann, and Casselman plum) × 4G1180 plumcot; selected 1996. USPP 16,590; 30 May 2006. Fruit: medium, 60 mm diameter; 119 g; cordate; skin reddish-maroon, glabrous; flesh reddish-yellow, 18.2% SS; clingstone; ripe 10–17 Aug., 10 d after Casselman. Tree: medium; vigorous; upright; heavy and regular producer; self-infertile; anthers yellow; blooms 26 Feb. to 6 Mar. in Modesto; chilling requirement 800 h.

Flavor Rouge. An early season, red skin, multi-colored flesh, interspecific plum. Origin: Zaiger Genetics, Inc., Modesto, CA, by G.N. Zaiger, L.M. Gardner, and G.G. Zaiger. 293LF464 × O.P.; selected 1996. USPP 16,491; 2 May 2006. Fruit: small to medium, 48 mm diameter, 67 g; globose; skin red; flesh multicolored, yellow to red; 19.2% SS; clingstone; ripe 10–15 June, 10 d after Red Beaut. Tree: large; vigorous; upright; heavy and regular producer; self-infertile; anther yellow; blooms 20–28 Feb. in Modesto; chilling requirement 500 h.

Lydecker. An early ripening, dark blue-black skin, reddish flesh, Japanese-American hybrid plum. Origin: University of Wisconsin, River Falls, by B.R. Smith. Oka × Z's Blue Giant; tested as 98-95-21-1. USPP 16,621; 6 June 2006. Fruit: medium, 55 mm diameter; globose; skin dark blue-black, glabrous; flesh red-purple; semi-freestone; 14% SS; ripe 6 Aug., 2–4 weeks before other large-fruited plums. Tree: small, dwarfish; medium vigor; slightly upright; superior winter hardiness; heavy production and precocious; self-infertile, very little pollen; blooms 25 Apr. to 1 May.

Plumsweet IV. A late-season, red over greenish-yellow skin, yellow flesh, interspecific plum. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Unnamed red plum × bulk pollen from apricot and interspecific plum-apricot hybrid; selected 2001. USPP 16,461; 18 Apr. 2006. Fruit: large, 67 mm diameter, 193 g; oblong; skin red over greenish-yellow, glabrous; flesh yellow with red bleeding; 22% to 26% SS; clingstone; ripe 15 Sep. to 5 Oct., 45 d after Yummy Giant. Tree: large; vigorous; upright; heavy and regular producer; self-infertile; anthers light yellow; blooms 28 Feb. to 9 Mar. in Le Grand.

Plumsweet V. A mid to late-season, dark red to purple skin, yellow flesh, interspecific plum. Origin: Le Grand, CA, by L.G. Bradford. Unnamed red plum × bulk pollen from apricot and interspecific plum-apricot hybrid; crossed 1997; selected 2001. USPP 16,369; 21 Mar. 2006. Fruit: medium, 60 mm diameter, 136 g; oblate; skin blackish-red over deep reddish-brown, glabrous; flesh grayish-yellow with some red bleeding into the flesh; clingstone; ripe 20 Aug. to 10 Sep., 10 d after August Yummy. Tree: medium; vigorous; spreading; regular producer; self-infertile; anther brilliant orange-yellow; blooms 23 Feb. to 4 Mar. in Le Grand.

DCA D5 (Sugar Top®). A mid- to late-season, bluish-purple skin, deep orange flesh, European plum for processing. Origin: DCA–University of Bologna, Italy, by F. Faccioli, S. Sansavini, M. Castagnoli, S. Lugli, and S. Martelli. Susino II × Stanley; crossed 1974; tested as DCA BO-D5; selected 1985; introd. 1996. EU PVR 14, 645. Fruit: medium, 40-mm diameter, 40–50 g; skin bluish-purple, glabrous; flesh deep orange, sweet, very juicy, 22.3% to 23.4% SS; ripe mid-August in Bologna, 2–3 d before Stanley; subject to fruit drop. Tree: medium-high vigor; upright; very productive; self-fertile; blooms semi-late.

Prune 29. A late-season, purple-red skin, greenish-yellow flesh, European plum, for processing. Origin: DCA–University of Bologna, Italy, by F. Faccioli, S. Sansavini, M. Castagnoli, S. Lugli, and S. Martelli. French Improved × Stanley; crossed 1974; tested as DCA BO-A29; selected 1985; introd. 1996. Fruit: medium, 35 mm diameter, 30–40 g; elliptical; skin purple-red, glabrous; flesh greenish-yellow; 23.2% to 25.1% SS; good taste even for fresh market; semi-clingstone; ripe late August to early September in Bologna, 2–3 d after Stanley. Tree: medium-high vigor; upright; average production; usually self-infertile.

Shezifon Kerassia. An early season, small-fruited, dark blue, hexaploid, plum derived from P. cereasia. Origin: Agricultural Research Organization, Newe-Ya'ar Research Center, Ramkat Yishay, Israel, by D. Holland, I. Bar-Ya'akov, and K. Hatib. Selected from landrace sweet Kerassia in 1990; tested as P.657-158; released 2005. Israeli Plant Breeder's rights applied for. Fruit: very small, 22-mm diameter, 8 g; globose; skin dark blue, glabrous; flesh yellow-green; 17% SS; almost freestone; ripe with Santa Rosa. Tree: small; medium vigor; spreading; heavy producer; self-fertile; anthers yellow; blooms 7–26 Mar. in Newe-Ya'ar, with Santa Rosa and Laroda; chilling requirement 590 h; hexaploid.

Sugar Top®. See DCA D5.

PLUM ROOTSTOCK

Thomas G. Beckman

USDA-ARS Southeastern Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory, Byron, GA

Felinem. Compatible with Japanese plum. Described under Almond Rootstock.

Garnem. Compatible with Japanese plum. Described under Almond Rootstock.

Monegro. Compatible with Japanese plum. Described under Almond Rootstock.

RASPBERRY

Hugh A. Daubeny

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agriculture Research Centre, Agassiz, BC

Cascade Bounty. A high yielding floricane fruiting red raspberry for processing. Origin: Washington State University, by P.P. Moore. Chief × WSU 894; crossed 1992; selected 1995; tested as WSU 1162; introd. 2005. USPP 18,246; 27 Nov. 2007. Fruit: medium; bright red; round; mid- to late-season ripening, with Meeker; tart flavor; easily removed from receptacle; lacks sufficient cohesion for individually quick frozen (IQF); recommended for machine harvesting for processing. Plant: very vigorous; susceptible to the North American aphid (Amphorophora agathonica) vector of the raspberry mosaic virus complex; susceptible to Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV); very good field tolerance to root rot (Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi).

Cascade Dawn. An early season, high yielding floricane fruiting red raspberry for fresh market. Origin: Washington State University, by P.P. Moore. WSU 991 × WSU 608; crossed 1988; tested as WSU 1068; introd. 2005. USPP 17,985; 4 Sept. 2007. Fruit: long conical; glossy red; early ripening; excellent fresh flavor; not easily released from receptacle until fully ripe; recommended for local fresh market and u-pick. Plant: very vigorous; susceptible to A. agathonica; susceptible to RBDV; very good field tolerance to root rot.

Explorer. An early ripening primocane-fruiting black raspberry. Origin: Longmont, CO, by P. Tallman. Cross of a black raspberry from Poughkeepsie, NY and one from Rogers, AR; crossed 1993; introd. 2006. USPP 17,727; 15 May 2007. Fruit: small, between 1.2–2.4 g; shape close to spherical; characteristic black raspberry flavor and color; ripens mid-August. Plant: less vigorous than Jewel; less spiny on upper portion than other cultivars; tipping primocane delays ripening; over wintered canes produce early floricane crop.

Glen Doll. A mid-season-ripening floricane-fruiting red raspberry suitable for machine harvest and protected culture. Origin: Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Scotland, by R.J. McNicol. Glen Rosa × SCRI 8605C-2; crossed 1990; tested as SCRI 9053B76; introd. 2006. Fruit: medium, smaller than Glen Ample; bright red; round-conical; very firm; mid-season ripening; good consistent flavor; easily removed from receptacle. Plant: spine-free, upright, easily managed compact habit; fruit well presented on strong laterals; resistant to biotypes 1 through 4 of Amphorophora idaei, the European aphid vector of the raspberry mosaic virus complex; good tolerance to spur blight (Didymella applanata) and cane botrytis (Botrytis cinerea).

Glen Fyne. A productive floricane-fruiting red raspberry suitable for machine harvest and fresh market. Origin: Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Scotland, by R.J. McNicol. SCRI 8631D-1 × SCRI 8605C-2; crossed 1990; tested as 9062E-1; introd. 2007. Fruit: medium to large; bright red; shape similar to Glen Ample; firm; excellent sweet flavor; mid-season ripening; easily removed from receptacle; high proportion of IQF quality obtained by machine harvesting. Plant: spine-free; moderate to high vigor; fruit well presented on strong laterals; resistant to biotypes 1 to 4 of A. idaei; susceptible to RBDV; susceptible to root rot.

Malling Hestia. A very late ripening floricane-fruiting red raspberry with an excellent shelf life and adapted to the amateur market. Origin: East Malling Research Station, Kent, UK, by V.H. Knight. EM 3689 × Gaia; crossed 1982; tested as EM 5928/114; introd. 2005. Fruit: medium to large; round to blunt conical; attractive; medium-red; skin firm, strong; flavor good, slightly acid; shelf life superior to Glen Ample and Tulameen; good for IQF. Plant: good habit; spiny canes; moderate height; well attached laterals with few spines; fruit well presented; late bud break, not prone to spring frost damage; resistant to biotypes 1 to 4 of A. idaei; slow to become infected with RBDV; moderately susceptible to cane botrytis, cane spot (Leptosphaeria coniothyrium); susceptible to root rot in glasshouse pot tests.

Marcela. A very early ripening primocane-fruiting red raspberry. Origin: Medway Fruits, Kent, UK, by D.L. Jennings. Fruit: medium to large; bright, medium red, no tendency to darken; good flavor; firm; shelf life excellent; good skin strength. Plant: produces primocane and floricane crops; yields in UK and Chile exceed Autumn Bliss; vigorous; erect canes; few basal spines.

Moutere. An early ripening floricane-fruiting raspberry producing high yields of attractive fruit. Origin: HortResearch Centre, Nelson, New Zealand, by H.K. Hall. Haida × Qualicum; crossed 1987 at Pacific Agriculture Research Centre in Vancouver, BC by H.A. Daubeny; selected 1990; tested as 87-24WD10 and HR 112; introd. 2006. USPP 17,744; 22 May 2007. Fruit: large, uniform; attractive; bright red; moderately early ripening, almost with Malahat; easily removed from receptacle. Plant: vigorous; upright; semi-spine-free canes; resistant to RBDV in New Zealand

Nanoose. A late-ripening, productive floricane-fruiting raspberry with high quality fruit and compact growth habit; it introduces a new source of the North American red raspberry into the raspberry gene pool. Origin: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agriculture Research Centre, Agassiz, B.C., Canada, by C. Kempler and H.A. Daubeny. BC 86-41-15 × BC 83-15-15 (BC 86-41-15 is a fourth generation derivative of a selection of Rubus strigosus made from a wild population at Dalhousie Lake, Quebec; crossed 1990; selected 1994; tested as 90-6-2; introd. 2007. Fruit: very large; glossy dark red; round; firm; thick-appearing drupelet; pleasant flavor; long harvest season; easily removed from receptacle; adapted to machine harvest; not suitable for IQF. Plant: relatively short canes; few spines on top portion; less winter hardy than Meeker; resistant to the common strain of A. agathonica; susceptible to RBDV; susceptible to root rot.

Nantahala. A late-ripening primocane-fruiting red raspberry adapted to cooler regions of North Carolina. Origin: North Carolina State University, Raleigh, by J.R. Ballington, G.E. Fernandez and S.K. Bryson. NC 245 × Rossana; crossed 1994; selected 1998; tested as NC 451; introd. 2007. USPP applied for. Fruit: medium; attractive; firm; good flavor; uniform; semi-conical; easy to harvest. Plant: moderately productive; floricane hardiness unknown; higher level of resistance to late rust (Pucciniastrum americanum) than Caroline and Heritage.

Pequot. A very winter hardy, black raspberry. Origin: Brambleberry Farm, Pequot Lakes, MN, by J. Fruth. Parentage unknown. Fruit: small, similar to Latham red raspberry; firm; good shelf life, remains intact after 10–14 d at 1 to 6 °C; ripens in July over a 3-week period. Plant: hardy to USDA zone 3; resistant to most raspberry diseases.

STRAWBERRY

Kim S. Lewers

USDA-ARS, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Genetic Improvement of Fruits and Vegetables Laboratory, Beltsville, MD

Aguedilla. A short-day strawberry, for October planting and January to spring harvest in southwest Spain. Origin: Instituto Andaluz de Investigación y Formación Agraria y Pesquera, Asociación Española de Viveristas de Plantas de Fresa, Fresas Nuevos Materiales S.A., Oficina Española de Variedades Vegetales, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria, and Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Spain, by J.M. López-Aranda, C. Soria, L. Miranda, J. F. Sánchez-Sevilla, J. Gálvez, R. Villalba, F. Romero, B. De Los Santos, J.J. Medina, J. Palacios, E. Bardón, A. Arjona, A. Refoyo, A. Martinez-Treceño, A. De Cal, P. Melgarejo, and R. Bartual. Camarosa × RB-67-35; crossed 1997; selected 1998; tested as 1-566. Fruit: skin dark red; similar to Ventana and Camarosa; wedge shaped; firmness similar to Ventana and Medina; flesh medium red, hollow, tasty, pleasantly aromatic; achenes below surface; calyx firmly attached, same diameter as fruit; good shelf life similar to Camarosa. Plant: vigorous; very high early and total yield; globose to flat-globose; flowers even with foliage; resistance to leather rot (Phytophthora cactorum), verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae), powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca macularis sp. fragariae), and anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) similar to Camarosa.

Antea. A short-day strawberry for high-chilling areas. Origin: CIV Consorzio Italiano Vivaisti, Comacchio (Ferrara), Italy, by M. Leis, A. Martinelli, and G. Castagnoli. FB6L-3 × Onebor; crossed 1996; selected 1998; tested as A15-34. EU PVR applied for. Fruit: very attractive; bright red color even when fully ripe; homogeneously medium-large; long conic, very uniform; glossy skin; flesh firm even at high temperatures; skin resistant to handling damage; very sweet; best picked fully ripe; mid-season; good shelf life. Plant: good vigor; suitable for continental climate; highly productive; globose habit; medium density.

BG-959 (Splendor). Short-day strawberry adapted to coastal southern California. Origin: Berry Genetics, Inc., Freedom, CA, by S.D. Nelson, M.D. Nelson, and L. Stoeckle. Camarosa × PS-1269; crossed 1996; selected 1998; introd. 2005. USPP 17,864; 17 July 2007. Fruit: red skin; medium to large, 26.8 g, similar to Camarosa; uniform conical to flat-conical; smooth fruit, lacking ridges or creases; flesh medium-red, gloss, firmness, and flavor similar to Camarosa; achenes level with surface; early harvest, beginning in late December, 20% to 25% production by late February. Plant: freezer yield similar to Camarosa; commercial quality yield greater than Camarosa under southern Californian conditions; small; short petioles; few bract leaflets; ease of fruit picking; inflorescences level with foliage; tolerant of two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae), aphids, and flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), moderately tolerant of botrytis fruit rot (Botrytis cinerea), and powdery mildew.

BG-1975 (Virtue). Short-day strawberry primarily adapted to coastal southern California, production from late December with 50% of production by the end of March. Origin: Berry Genetics, Inc., Freedom, CA, by S. Nelson, M. Nelson, and L. Stoeckle. BG-269 × BG-633; selected 1999. USPP 17,725; 15 May 2007. Fruit: orange-red to red skin; medium to large; conical-cylindrical; surface smooth, lacking in creases or ridges; attractive; flesh medium-red, firm, flavorful; achenes level or below surface; early season, late December, 50% production by late March. Plant: vigorous; upright habit; medium to large; flowers and fruit level to above foliage; moderately tolerant of botrytis fruit rot, bacterial angular leaf-spot (Xanthomonas fragariae), and powdery mildew, tolerant of two-spotted spider mites, flower thrips, and aphids.

Civri30 (Elsinore®). A day-neutral strawberry suited for high-chilling areas. Origin: CIV Consorzio Italiano Vivaisti, Comacchio (Ferrara), Italy, by M. Leis, A. Martinelli, and G. Castagnoli. Z1C-7 × Sweet Charlie; crossed 1996; selected 1998; tested as A30-02. EU PVR 14,561; 24 Jan. 2005. Fruit: bright uniform orange-red skin; large; conic; appearance and flesh similar to Elsanta; flesh uniform red, smooth, firm texture; very good eating quality; early, continues to cold weather. Plant: medium vigor; very high productivity; flowers above intense green foliage.

Civl35 (Naiad®). Short-day strawberry suited for low-chilling areas. Origin: CIV Consorzio Italiano Vivaisti, Comacchio (Ferrara), Italy, by M. Leis, A. Martinelli, and G. Castagnoli. Oso Grande × Civero; crossed 1993; selected 1995; tested as J9L3-35. EU PVR 13,365; 17 May 2004. Fruit: bright red skin; uniformly medium-large; mostly conic; flesh uniform red, glossy medium firm; very good shipping quality and shelf life; excellent flavor; mid-season; achenes slightly sunken or on surface. Plant: medium vigor, high productivity; erect habit; medium density; bright green leaves.

Clery. A short-day strawberry suited for high-chilling areas. Origin: CIV Consorzio Italiano Vivaisti, Comacchio (Ferrara), Italy, by M. Leis, A. Martinelli, and G. Castagnoli. Sweet Charlie × Onebor; crossed 1996; selected 1998; tested as A20-17. EU PVR 16,743; 30 Jan. 2006. Fruit: bright carmine red; homogeneously large; long conic; uniform; attractive; resistant to handling and transport damage; sweet smelling, aromatic; early. Plant: good vigor; high chilling requirement; suitable for continental European environments; high productivity; globe shaped; medium-strong density; very bright medium-green leaves.

DPI Rubygem (Rubygem). Short-day strawberry primarily suited for mild winter, fresh fruit production in subtropical, moderately dry climates. Origin: State of Queensland, Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, Horticulture Australia Limited, University of Florida, by M.E. Herrington, J.A. Moisander, C.E. Reid, and C. Chandler. Earlibrite × Carlsbad; crossed 1998, selected 1999, tested as 99-194. USPP 17,464; 6 Mar. 2007. Fruit: red; medium, similar to Strawberry Festival; generally conical to cordiform, short wedge-shaped; flesh uniformly red, attractive, glossy, moderately firm, juicy, solid, little hollowness, flavorful, high percent SS, low acidity; early season; calyx often broader than fruit, strongly adhering; achenes level with surface; more susceptible to rain damage than Strawberry Festival; good shipper. Plant: strong vigor; high yield, similar to Sweet Charlie and Strawberry Festival; globose compact; upright; medium runnering; highly resistant to fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae), similar to Strawberry Festival.

Driscoll Atlantis. Partially everbearing strawberry for commercial production in Florida. Origin: Driscoll Strawberry Associates, Watsonville, CA, by K.L. Gilford and B.D. Mowrey. 88E94 × Mirador; selected 1999. USPP 16,475; 25 Apr. 2006. Fruit: uniform, red skin; medium, 23.6 g, similar to Key Largo; uniformly conical; flesh dark red, glossy, firm, medium-sized hollow center, very sweet, medium acidity; calyx strongly adhering, spreading, level with surface, same fruit diameter or wider; achenes greyed-red to yellow-green, level with surface, very narrow band without; harvest late November to mid-March. Plant: medium vigor; moderate to low yield, 327 g/plant; flat; globose; medium foliage density; inflorescence level with canopy; short to moderately long fruiting trusses, 18.2 cm; susceptible to two-spotted spider mite, tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus), botrytis fruit rot, and powdery mildew, moderately susceptible to verticillium wilt and bacterial angular leaf-spot, moderately resistant to Strawberry mottle virus.

Driscoll Bonaire. Partially everbearing strawberry for commercial production in Florida. Origin: Driscoll Strawberry Associates, Watsonville, CA, by K.L. Gilford. Driscoll Marathon × Driscoll Madeira; selected 2000. USPP 18,041; 18 Sept. 2007. Fruit: slightly irregular red skin; large, 32.9 g; uniform conical; flesh variable light red, glossy, soft, fine texture, small hollow center, moderately sweet, medium acidity; calyx strongly adhering, reflexed, inserted level, same fruit diameter; achenes greyed-orange to greyed-yellow, inserted level with surface, very narrow band without; harvest late November to early April. Plant: medium vigor; moderate yield, 435 g/plant; flat globose; medium canopy density; inflorescence level with foliage; short fruiting trusses, 13.4 cm; susceptible to two-spotted spider mite, tarnished plant bug, botrytis fruit rot, moderately susceptible to powdery mildew, susceptible to verticillium wilt and Strawberry mottle virus, moderately susceptible to bacterial angular leaf-spot.

Driscoll El Dorado. Partially short-day strawberry for commercial production in southern California. Origin: Driscoll Strawberry Associates, Watsonville, CA, by A.Q. Amorao, M. Ferguson, and A. Solis, Jr. 62C131 × Camarosa; selected 1999. USPP 16,238; 7 Feb. 2006. Fruit: uniform dark red skin; medium, 22.8 g; conical; flesh solid orange-red, glossy, firm, medium-coarse texture, medium-size hollow center, moderately sweet, medium acidity; calyx strongly adhering; spreading to reflexed, inserted level, larger diameter than fruit; achenes yellow to greyed-red, inserted below surface, narrow band without; harvest early January to late May. Plant: strong vigor, very high yield, 830 g/plant; globose with dense canopy; inflorescence above foliage; moderately long fruiting trusses, 24.5 cm; susceptible to two-spotted spider mite, tarnished plant bug, and botrytis fruit rot, moderately resistant to powdery mildew and Strawberry mottle virus, moderately susceptible to verticillium wilt and bacterial angular leaf-spot.

Driscoll Destin. Partially everbearing strawberry for commercial production in coastal central California. Origin: Driscoll Strawberry Associates, Watsonville, CA, by K.L. Gilford, B.D. Mowrey, and J. Coss. 73D144 × 88E94; selected 2000. USPP 16,299; 28 Feb. 2006. Fruit: variable orange-red skin; medium-large, 28.9 g; conical to almost cylindrical; flesh orange-red, small hollow center; achenes greyed-red to yellow-green, medium band without; harvest November to March. Plant: strong vigor; relatively low yield, 285 g/plant; flat, dense foliage; inflorescence beneath foliage; short fruiting trusses 8.8 cm.

Driscoll Pearl. Partially everbearing strawberry for commercial production in coastal central California. Origin: Driscoll Strawberry Associates, Watsonville, CA, by B.D. Mowrey, K.L. Gilford, L.T. Kodama, and J. Coss. San Juan × 88E94; selected 2000. USPP 16,241; 7 Feb. 2006. Fruit: uniform dark red skin; medium, 24.1 g; conical; flesh solid orange-red, glossy, medium firm, fine texture, small hollow center, sweet, medium acidity; calyx spreading to reflexed, inserted level with surface, smaller than fruit diameter; achenes greyed-purple to yellow, inserted surface level, very narrow band without; harvest mid- to late March to early November. Plant: strong vigor; extremely high yield, 1854 g/plant; upright, open canopy; inflorescence beneath to level with foliage; very long fruiting trusses, 42.8 cm; moderately susceptible to two-spotted spider mite, susceptible to tarnished plant bug and botrytis fruit rot, highly susceptible to powdery mildew, moderately susceptible to verticillium wilt and bacterial angular leaf-spot, moderately resistant to Strawberry mottle virus.

Driscoll Sanibel. Partially everbearing strawberry for commercial production in Florida. Origin: Driscoll Strawberry Associates, Watsonville, CA, by K.L. Gilford, and B.D. Mowrey. 10D213 × 88E94; selected 1999. USPP 16,298; 28 Feb. 2006. Fruit: uniform red skin; large, 32.4 g; conical; flesh solid orange-red, glossy, medium-firm, fine texture, medium size hollow center, sweet, medium acidity; calyx strongly adhering, spreading to reflexed, inserted surface level, larger than fruit diameter; achenes greyed-red to yellow-green inserted level, narrow band without; harvest late November to mid-March. Plant: strong vigor; moderate to low yield, 351 g/plant; flat, medium canopy density; inflorescence beneath to level with foliage; short fruiting trusses, 12.9 cm; susceptible to two-spotted spider mite, tarnished plant bug, botrytis fruit rot, powdery mildew, and verticillium wilt, moderately resistant to Strawberry mottle virus, moderately susceptible to bacterial angular leaf-spot.

Driscoll Sausalito. Partially everbearing strawberry for commercial production in coastal central California. Origin: Driscoll Strawberry Associates, Watsonville, CA, by B.D. Mowrey, L.T. Kodama, J. Coss, and M. Ferguson. San Juan × 14C85; selected 2000. USPP 18,040; 18 Sept. 2007. Fruit: variable orange-red skin; medium, 21.8 g; conical; flesh whitish solid orange, glossy, medium-firm flesh, fine texture, small hollow center, sweet, mild acidity; calyx strongly adhering, spreading to reflexed, inserted level to above surface, same diameter as fruit; achenes greyed-purple to yellow, inserted level to above surface, medium width band without; harvest early April to early November. Plant: weak to medium vigor, extremely high yield, 1,283 g/plant; flat; medium foliage density; inflorescence beneath to level with canopy; moderately long fruiting trusses, 25.3 cm; susceptible to two-spotted spider mite, tarnished plant bug, and botrytis fruit rot, moderately susceptible to powdery mildew, verticillium wilt, and bacterial angular leaf-spot, moderately resistant to Strawberry mottle virus.

Elsinore®. See Civri30.

Figaro. Short-day strawberry selected for controlled environment in The Netherlands. Origin: Plant Research International, B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands, by E.J. Meulenbroek. Elsanta × Pajaro; crossed 1991; selected 1993. USPP 18,079; 25 Sept. 2007. Fruit: light red skin; large; uniformly rounded, cordiform; flesh glossy, very firm, mostly solid center, pleasant aroma and taste; early; calyx medium-strongly adhering, star-shaped, diameter slightly smaller than fruit, level with surface; achenes level with surface; stores well 5–10 d. Plant: vigorous; globose; upright; dense; bushy; open habit; few crowns per plant; flowers level with foliage, on long trusses.

Herut. Remontant, infra-short-day strawberry for fall to spring production in Mediterranean, subtropical climates. Origin: Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Israel, by M. Koch-Dean, Z. Tanami, and S. Freeman. Yael × Sweet Charlie; selected 1998; released 2002; registered in Israel. EU PVR 21,583. Fruit: medium to deep red, darker than Tamar and Sweet Charlie; large, ∼24 g; conical, uniform shape; attractive; flesh glossy, moderately firm, aromatic, sweet, low acidity; harvest from mid-November through May. Plant: moderately vigorous, two yield peaks 14 Dec. and 1 Mar.; upright habit; no chilling requirement for flowering; dark green leaves; flowers level with foliage; moderately susceptible to powdery mildew, resistant to anthracnose fruit rot.

Itasca™. See MNUS138.

Kilo. Short-day cultivar for southern Italy, adapted to winter planting system using plug plants. Origin: Italian National Project “Frutticoltura”, CRA–Unità di Ricerca per la Frutticoltura, Forlì, by W. Faedi, G. Baruzzi, G. Capriolo, F. D'Anna, P. Lucchi, G. Martelli, and C. Mennone. Rosalinda × Demetra; crossed 1999; selected 2001; tested as MT 99.163.22; introd. 2008. Fruit: external and internal bright red; large to very large; shape elongated, uniform; similar or greater firmness than Camarosa; average taste; very early season, similar to Ventana. Plant: vigorous; high yielding; large; tolerant of heavy soils, drought, temperature variations; tolerant of main soil borne pathogens; tolerant of powdery mildew.

Macarena. Short-day strawberry for late October planting and winter–spring low tunnel production in northern Spain. Origin: Plantas de Navarra S.A., Valtierra, Spain, by I.A. Rubio. 88-033 × 9150. USPP 16,898; 1 Aug. 2006. Fruit: orange-red skin; large; long conic, slight neck, uniform; flesh red, lighter toward center, firm, solid center, very sweet, medium acidity; early to very early; calyx strongly adhering, large, reflexed; achenes orange-red, below surface, narrow band without; stores well at 2 °C for 48 h. Plant: medium vigor; flat to flat-globose; flowers beneath foliage; medium runner production; requires an induction to flowering by chilling.

MNUS138 (Itasca™). Short-day strawberry for relatively cold production areas (e.g. USDA Hardiness Zones 3–4). Origin: University of Minnesota and USDA-ARS, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, by J. Luby, D. Wildung, G. Galletta, J. Maas, and J. Enns. Seneca × Allstar; crossed 1983; selected 1984; tested as MNUS138; introd. 2006. USPP 17,404; 13 Feb. 2007. Fruit: bright red to orange-red skin; medium; conic-wedge to blunt-wedge shape; flesh orange-red, smooth, moderately firm, flavor balanced to tart, tangerine aroma; early. Plant: very hardy; runners prolifically; somewhat glossy dark green foliage; resistant to 5 common eastern U.S. races of red stele root rot (Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae), susceptible to crown rot (P. cactorum), foliage resistant to powdery mildew, leaf scorch (Diplocarpon earliana [anamorph Marssonina fragariae]), and moderately resistant to leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae [anamorph Ramularia brunnea syn. R. tulasnei]).

Naiad®. See Civl35.

Nora. Short-day strawberry mainly adapted to organic production in non-fumigated soils in southern and central-north Italy's winter planting system using plug plants. Origin: Italian National Project “Frutticoltura” CRA–Unità di Ricerca per la Frutticoltura – Forlì, by W. Faedi and G. Baruzzi, in collaboration with G. Capriolo, F. D'Anna, P. Lucchi, G. Martelli, and C. Mennone. Chandler × 91.143.5 (complex pedigree involving Italian and American germplasm); crossed 1999; selected 2001; tested as MT 99.20.01; introd. 2008. Fruit: bright red; medium-large, smaller than Camarosa; shape elongated, uniform; flesh bright red, medium firmness, less than Camarosa, high sweetness, greater than Candonga, well balanced acidity; very good taste; early season. Plant: moderately vigorous; large; tolerant of heavy soils, drought, and temperature variations; tolerant of main soil borne pathogens; tolerant of powdery mildew, and moderately susceptible to anthracnose and bacterial angular leaf-spot.

Orléans. Short-day strawberry primarily adapted for growing conditions of eastern central Canada. Origin: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec and Les Fraises de l'Ile d'Orléans Inc., Ile d'Orléans, Quebec, by S. Khanizadeh, J. Cousineau, L. Gauthier, D. Buszard, and C. Hébert. L'Acadie × Joliette; tested as FIO9623-55; introd. 2000. USPP 17,670; 1 May 2007. Fruit: light red skin; large, 16 g; globose-conic; flesh solid orange-red to medium red, attractive, glossy, firm to very firm, pleasant flavor, average sweetness, average acidity, aromatic; late mid-season; calyx level to slightly reflexed, fairly easy to hull; achenes level with surface, very narrow to narrow band without; keeps well for 4–5 d at 4 °C. Plant: moderately vigorous; very productive; upright habit; flowers mid-season; inflorescences beneath to slightly beneath the foliage; fruiting trusses fairly short, semi-erect at first harvest; good runner production; moderately susceptible to leaf spot, leaf blight (Phomopsis obscurans syn. Dendrophoma obscurans) and leaf scorch, susceptible to botrytis fruit rot and powdery mildew.

Palatina. Short-day strawberry adapted to southern Italy's winter planting system. Origin: Italian National Project “Frutticoltura”, CRA–Unità di Ricerca per la Frutticoltura, Forlì, by W. Faedi and G. Baruzzi in collaboration with G. Capriolo, F. D'Anna, P. Lucchi, G. Martelli, and C. Mennone. Tudla × Camarosa; crossed 1995; selected 1997; tested as MT 95.I59.2; introd. 2008. Fruit: bright red, lighter than Camarosa; very large; elongated, similar percentage of misshapen fruit to Camarosa; firmness similar or greater than Camarosa, less than Candonga; flesh red, good taste; long shelf life; medium late-season, similar to Camarosa. Plant: vigorous, similar to Camarosa; large; tolerant of heavy soils, drought, and temperature variations; medium tolerance to main soil borne pathogens, moderately susceptible to powdery mildew, anthracnose, bacterial angular leaf-spot.

PS-4634. Short-day strawberry adapted to central coast of California. Origin: Plant Sciences, Inc., Watsonville, CA, by S.M. Ackerman, S.D. Nelson, and M.D. Nelson. PS-592 × PS-1031; crossed 1997; selected 1999; introd. 2005. USPP 17,487; 13 Mar. 2007. Fruit: light red skin; very large; conical; flesh medium to light red, attractive, glossy, firm, very good flavor; production March through November, 15-20% production by late May. Plant: vigorous; large; medium to strong foliage blistering; inflorescences long, even with foliage; tolerant of two-spotted spider mite, aphids (Aphis L.), and flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), moderately tolerant of botrytis fruit rot, powdery mildew, and bacterial angular leaf-spot, susceptible to verticillium wilt.

PS-5016. Short-day strawberry adapted for central coast of California. Origin: Plant Sciences, Inc., Watsonville, CA, by S.M. Ackerman, S.D. Nelson, and M.D. Nelson. PS-1150 × PS-1269; crossed 1997; selected 1999; introd. 2005. USPP 17,312; 26 Dec. 2006. Fruit: medium red; small; conical; flesh red, glossy, excellent firmness, good flavor; early, April through November. Plant: vigorous; large; light green in color; strongly concave leaf cross section; inflorescences above plant most of season; tolerant of two-spotted spider mites, aphids, and flower thrips, moderately tolerant of botrytis fruit rot, susceptible to powdery mildew and bacterial angular leaf-spot.

PS-5096. Short-day strawberry adapted to central coast of California. Origin: Plant Sciences, Inc., Watsonville, CA, by S.M. Ackerman, S.D. Nelson, and M.D. Nelson. PS-592 × PS-1150; crossed 1997; selected 1999. USPP applied for. Fruit: orange-red to red; medium; conical; flesh red, attractive, glossy, very firm, excellent flavor; early, April through November. Plant: vigorous; large; inflorescences even to above foliage; moderately susceptible to two-spotted spider mites, flower thrips; botrytis fruit rot powdery mildew, and bacterial angular leaf-spot.

PS-5298. Short-day strawberry adapted to central coast of California. Origin: Plant Sciences, Inc., Watsonville, CA, by S.M. Ackerman, S.D. Nelson, and M.D. Nelson. PS-592 × Aromas; crossed 1997; selected 1999. USPP applied for. Fruit: medium red; medium to large; conical; flesh medium red, attractive, glossy, firm; early, April through November. Plant: vigorous; large; inflorescences even with the foliage; moderately susceptible to two-spotted spider mites, aphids, flower thrips, botrytis fruit rot, powdery mildew, and bacterial angular leaf-spot.

QHI Sugarbaby (Sugarbaby). Short-day, partially remontant strawberry for eastern Australia. Origin: State of Queensland, Department of Primary Industries, Queensland, Australia, by M.E. Herrington and J.A. Moisander. Coogee × Redlands Joy; selected 2000. USPP 16,766; 4 July 2006. Fruit: bright red; medium-dense, similar to Redlands Joy and Strawberry Festival; generally conical to cordiform, same length and width; flesh uniformly medium red, attractive, glossy, firm, solid, moderately sweet, low acidity like Sweet Charlie, flavorful; calyx strongly adhering, level with fruit, same diameter as fruit; achenes below fruit surface; late-season, similar to Camarosa. Plant: strong vigor; good yields, similar to Redlands Joy, Camarosa, and Sweet Charlie; globose; open plant density; flowers even with foliage; medium runnering; no vernalization requirement; resistant to fusarium wilt.

Rubygem. See DPI Rubigem.

Sabrosa. Short-day strawberry for late October planting and winter–spring production under low tunnels in northern Spain. Origin: Plantas De Navarra, S.A., Navarra, Spain; by J. Lopez. 9238 × 86-032. USPP 16,558; 23 May 2006. Fruit: red; medium-dense; uniform conic, slight neck; flesh medium red, lighter toward center, glossy, very firm, very sweet, medium acidity; achenes orange-red, level with surface, medium width band without; calyx strongly adhering, reflexed, same diameter as fruit. Plant: very vigorous; very productive; globose; medium density; inflorescence level with foliage; erect trusses; requires an induction to flowering by chilling.

Siba. Short-day strawberry suited for low-chilling areas. Origin: CIV Consorzio Italiano Vivaisti, Comacchio (Ferrara), Italy, by M. Leis, A. Martinelli, and G. Castagnoli. H3B1-20 × J9L3-42; crossed 1999; selected 2001; tested as Q6Q8-24. EU PVR applied for. Fruit: bright red; large; uniform long-conic; flesh red, very attractive, firm, very sweet, aromatic; early; easy to decap. Plant: good vigor; productivity good as frigo plant, very strong as fresh plant or plug plant; very tolerant of root and leaf diseases.

Splendor. See BG-959.

Stolo. Short-day strawberry adapted to the Pacific Northwest for fresh and processing markets. Origin: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agriculture Research Centre, Agassiz, B.C., Canada, by C. Kempler and H.A. Daubeny. Puget Reliance × Whonnock; crossed 1994; selected 1997; tested as BC 96-33-4; introd. 2006. Canadian PBR applied for. Fruit: bright red; larger than Totem; conical shape; flesh red, solid, excellent flavor; calyx easy removal; ripens a few days after Totem. Plant: vigorous; high-yielding; very productive in matted rows; upright habit; abundant runners produced; winter hardy in the Pacific Northwest; resistant to root weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), moderately tolerant of powdery mildew; some tolerance of strawberry virus complex transmitted by strawberry aphid (Chaetosiphon fragaefoli), tolerant of some soil-borne organisms.

Sugarbaby. See QHI Sugarbaby.

Tamir. Infra-short-day strawberry developed as alternative to Hadas for Israel, producing around the New Year for local and European markets. Origin: Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Israel, by N. Dai, Z. Tanami, and S. Slotzky. Herut × Hadas; selected 2001; released 2007. USPP applied for. Fruit: bright red with minor blotching variations; large, ∼28 g; conical; flesh firm, juicy, good flavor; achenes yellow to light red, slightly protruded; early, from November to June. Plant: moderately vigorous; high yield; open growth habit; long pedicels; fruit easy to harvest; no chilling requirement for flowering; good field tolerance of powdery mildew.

V151. Short-day strawberry adapted to eastern Canada that is primarily suited for the fresh market.Origin: University of Guelph–Simcoe Research Station, Simcoe, Ontario, Canada, by A. Dale. 12RK121 × 57K104; crossed 1993; selected 1995; tested as 25V151; introd. 2007. Fruit: very bright, medium-red skin, flesh red; large; moderately firm skin, excellent fresh flavor; early, similar to Annapolis. Plant: vigorous; yields consistently; runners well; hardy; moderately resistant to leaf scorch and powdery mildew, susceptible to anthracnose.

Virtue. See BG-1975.

Yuval. Remontant infra-short-day strawberry grown in tunnels planted September produces fruits from November (two months before short-day cultivars) to the following summer. Origin: Fertiseeds Ltd., Nez Ziona, Israel, by S. Izhar. Tamar (selfed) × Bella (selfed); crossed 2000. USPP 17,388; 30 Jan. 2007. Fruit: uniform red; uniformly cordiform; flesh uneven orange-red, glossy, firm, somewhat hollow, very sweet, medium acidity; calyx small, strongly adhering, below fruit level; achenes light brown to deep yellow, level with surface, narrow band without. Plant: very high yield; inflorescence level with foliage; runners well; no vernalization requirement; floral bud primordia initiated under regimes of 13–14 h days at 22 to 26 °C.

INDEX

13S2101 CHERRY—SWEET

8S2743 APPLE

90-3437 GRAPE

90-3618 GRAPE

92-110-69 PLUM

AC Harrow Crisp™ PEAR—EUROPEAN

AC Harrow Gold™ PEAR—EUROPEAN

Aguedilla STRAWBERRY

Allegheny™ PAWPAW

Ambrosia™ PEAR—EUROPEAN

Amigo II PLUM

Andersen™ CHERRY—SWEET

Antea STRAWBERRY

Augustprince PEACH

Beaufort BLUEBERRY

Beaumont™ PEACH

Ben Avon CURRANT

Ben Dorain CURRANT

BG-1975 STRAWBERRY

BG-959 STRAWBERRY

Big Ben CURRANT

Black Delight PLUM

Black Globe GRAPE

Black Glow PLUM

Black Star CHERRY—SWEET

Black Sunrise PLUM

Blanc Seedless GRAPE

Blaze Star CHERRY—SWEET

BO 81604334 APRICOT

BO 90610010 APRICOT

Bora® APRICOT

Boreale® APRICOT

Brittany Gold APRICOT

Brunectwentyone NECTARINE

Burnectnineteen NECTARINE

Burnectwenty NECTARINE

Burnectwentythree NECTARINE

Burpeachtwentyone PEACH

Burpeachtwentytwo PEACH

Čačanska Crna CURRANT

Candy Princess PEACH

Candy Stripe PLUM

Carolina Gold PEACH

Carteret BLUEBERRY

Cascade Bounty RASPBERRY

Cascade Dawn RASPBERRY

Castore PEACH ROOTSTOCK

Challenger PEACH

China Pearl PEACH

Civg198 APPLE

Civl35 STRAWBERRY

Civri30 STRAWBERRY

Clery STRAWBERRY

Constanza PLUM

Corot noir GRAPE

Crimson Princess PEACH

Crimson Rocket PEACH

DCA D5 PLUM

Diamond Candy PEACH

DM 8313-1 GRAPE

DPI Rubygem STRAWBERRY

Driscoll Atlantis STRAWBERRY

Driscoll Bonaire STRAWBERRY

Driscoll Destin STRAWBERRY

Driscoll El Dorado STRAWBERRY

Driscoll Pearl STRAWBERRY

Driscoll Sanibel STRAWBERRY

Driscoll Sausalito STRAWBERRY

Driscoll Thornless Sleeping Beauty BLACKBERRY

Durango ALMOND

Earlicot APRICOT

Early Augustprince PEACH

Early Star™ CHERRY–SWEET

Elsinore® STRAWBERRY

Elta CHERRY ROOTSTOCK

Explorer RASPBERRY

Felinem ALMOND ROOTSTOCK

Felinem APRICOT ROOTSTOCK

Felinem PEACH ROOTSTOCK

Felinem PLUM ROOTSTOCK

Figaro STRAWBERRY

Flat Wonderful PEACH

Flavor Finale PLUM

Flavor Rouge PLUM

Forde WALNUT—PERSIAN

Frontenac gris GRAPE

Gafford PECAN

Galactica PEACH

Galaxy PEACH

Garnem ALMOND ROOTSTOCK

Garnem APRICOT ROOTSTOCK

Garnem PEACH ROOTSTOCK

Garnem PLUM ROOTSTOCK

Gillet WALNUT—PERSIAN

Glen Doll RASPBERRY

Glen Fyne RASPBERRY

Goldensweet APRICOT

Goodwin PEACH

GP-27 PEACH

Grace Star CHERRY—SWEET

Grand Bright NECTARINE

GRE-1198 APPLE

Green Jade™ PEAR—EUROPEAN

Greenstar® APPLE

Gulfcrest PEACH

Gulfcrimson PEACH

Gulfking PEACH

H2-169 PEAR—EUROPEAN

H28-52-96270 PEACH

Herut STRAWBERRY

HW610 PEAR—EUROPEAN

HW616 PEAR—EUROPEAN

Intrepid PEACH

Itasca™ STRAWBERRY

Ivory Duchess PEACH

Jordanne APRICOT

Kanzi® APPLE

Kilo STRAWBERRY

Kochi ALMOND

La Belle PEACH

La Rouge PEACH

La Sweet PEACH

Lakota PECAN

LaLa Star CHERRY—SWEET

Late Bright NECTARINE

Late Ross PEACH

Lilleland PEACH

Loch Maree BLACKBERRY

Lydecker PLUM

Macarena STRAWBERRY

Malling Hestia RASPBERRY

Marcela RASPBERRY

Maxine Rouge GRAPE

May Pearl II NECTARINE

May Pearl NECTARINE

Messina™ PEACH

MNUS138 STRAWBERRY

Modi’® APPLE

Monegro ALMOND ROOTSTOCK

Monegro APRICOT ROOTSTOCK

Monegro PEACH ROOTSTOCK

Monegro PLUM ROOTSTOCK

Moutere RASPBERRY

MSUP8706 PEACH

Naiad® STRAWBERRY

Nanoose RASPBERRY

Nantahala RASPBERRY

Natchez BLACKBERRY

Nectagala NECTARINE

Nectalady NECTARINE

Nectaperle NECTARINE

Nectapink NECTARINE

Nectaprima NECTARINE

Nectareine NECTARINE

Nectariane NECTARINE

Nectarmagie NECTARINE

Nectaroyal NECTARINE

New Hanover BLUEBERRY

Nicogreen APPLE

Nicoter APPLE

Ninfa APRICOT

NJ352 PEACH

NJ353 PEACH

NJN100 NECTARINE

Noiret GRAPE

Nora STRAWBERRY

Nugent™ CHERRY—SWEET

NY 518 CHERRY—SWEET

NY 9295 CHERRY—SWEET

NY62.0122.01 GRAPE

NY70.0809.10 GRAPE

NY73.0136.17 GRAPE

Orléans STRAWBERRY

P.F. 11 PEACH

P.F. 19-007 PEACH

P.F. 22-007 PEACH

P.F. 5D Big PEACH

P.F. 7A Freestone PEACH

P.F. Lucky 12 PEACH

P448-2 PEAR—EUROPEAN

Pacific Sweet NECTARINE

Palatina STRAWBERRY

Panaro 1 CHERRY—SWEET

Panaro 2 CHERRY—SWEET

Peach Tree PEACH

Pequot RASPBERRY

Petra APRICOT

Pieve APRICOT

Plawhite PEACH

Plumsweet IV PLUM

Plumsweet V PLUM

Polar Light NECTARINE

Polluce PEACH ROOTSTOCK

Poppy APRICOT

Potomac™ PAWPAW

PPF 1–7-2 PAWPAW

PPF 2-9 PAWPAW

PPF 4-2 PAWPAW

Prune 29 PLUM

PS-4634 STRAWBERRY

PS-5016 STRAWBERRY

PS-5096 STRAWBERRY

PS-5298 STRAWBERRY

QHI Sugarbaby STRAWBERRY

Red Bright NECTARINE

Robeson BLUEBERRY

Rougett GRAPE

Rubygem STRAWBERRY

S 5848 PEACH

S 6816 NECTARINE

S 6817 NECTARINE

Sabrosa STRAWBERRY

Sacajawea HAZELNUT

Santiam HAZELNUT

Sauzee King NECTARINE

Sentennial™ CHERRY—SWEET

Sexton WALNUT—PERSIAN

Sharpe PEACH ROOTSTOCK

Shezifon Kerassia PLUM

Siba STRAWBERRY

Snow Duchess PEACH

SnowSweet® APPLE

Sooyoung PEAR—ASIAN

Sovereign™ CHERRY—SWEET

SPC103 CHERRY—SWEET

Splendor STRAWBERRY

Spring Princess PEACH

Stolo STRAWBERRY

Sugar Pearl NECTARINE

Sugar Top® PLUM

Sugarbaby STRAWBERRY

Sugarine I NECTARINE

Sugarpeach II PEACH

Sugratwentyfour GRAPE

Sunectwentyone NECTARINE

Super Zee PEACH

Supermac APPLE

Sweet Early™ CHERRY—SWEET

Sweet Henry PEACH

Sweetheart ALMOND

Sweet-N-UP PEACH

Tamir STRAWBERRY

TexKing PEACH

TexPrince PEACH

Thai Tiger TXW1193-1 PEACH

Thai Tiger TXW1490-1 PEACH

Thai Tiger TXW1491-1 PEACH

Thai Tiger TXW1C4 PEACH

Tri-Gems APRICOT

TropicPeachOne PEACH

TropicPrince PEACH

TruGold PEACH

UFBeauty PEACH

UFBlaze PEACH

UFSun PEACH

V151 STRAWBERRY

V75024 PEACH

Valvin Muscat GRAPE

Viking Pearl NECTARINE

Virtue STRAWBERRY

Vitall PEACHVista Snow PEACH

Vitoria™ PEACH

Vollie PEACH

Wabash™ PAWPAW

Western Bright NECTARINE

Wildung APPLE

Winters ALMOND

Yuval STRAWBERRY

Zari APPLE

ADDENDA

APPLE

Civni (Rubens®). Attractive, early season, very intense and aromatic flavor. Origin: CIV Consorzio Italiano Vivaisti, Comacchio (Ferrara), Italy, by M. Leis, A. Martinelli, F. Tagliani, and G. Castagnoli. Gala × Elstar; crossed 1988; selected 1993; tested as VNI-185. EU PVR 16186; 15 Dec. 2005; USPP 14,177; 23 Sept. 2003. Fruit: medium; truncated conical shape; bi-color, bright red over green-yellow background, with 50% to 60% blush; flesh crisp, high levels of sugar and acidity, very intense, balanced flavor; outstanding eating characteristics. Tree: moderate to low vigor, best in fresh climates; precocious bearing, high and consistent productivity; susceptible to the most important diseases. (Updated from List 43).

Co-op 39. USPP 16,622; 6 June 2006 (List 43).

Crimson Crisp™. See Co-op 39 (List 43).

Juliet™. See Co-op 43 (List 43).

Dalitron. USPP 16,753; 4 July 2006 (List 43).

Honeycrisp. Based on DNA marker profiles parentage is not Macoun × Honeygold but Keepsake likely is one parent with other parent unknown (HortScience 40:15–17). USPP 7,197; 20 Mar. 1990 (List 35).

MC38. USPP 16,654; 13 June 2006 (List 43).

SJ 303. USPP 17,549; 3 Apr. 2007 (List 43).

APRICOT

Suaprinine. USPP 16,507; 9 May 2006 (List 43).

BLUEBERRY

Pink Champagne. See G-435 (List 43).

Pink Lemonade. See ARS 96-138 (List 43).

Abundance. USPP 16,476; 26 Apr. 2006 (List 43).

Alapaha. USPP 16,266; 21 Feb. 2006 (List 41).

Aurora. USPP 15,185; 28 Sept. 2006 (List 42).

Bluecrisp. USPP 11,033; 17 Aug. 1999 (List 39).

Camellia. USPP 18,151; 30 Oct. 2007 (List 43).

Draper. USPP 15,103; 24 Aug. 2004 (List 42).

Liberty. USPP 15,146; 14 Sept. 2004 (List 42).

Millennia. USPP 12,816; 30 July 2002 (List 41).

Ochlockonee. USPP 17,300; 26 Dec. 2006 (List 42).

Palmetto. USPP 16,756; 4 July 2006 (List 43).

Rebel. USPP 18,138; 23 Oct. 2007 (List 43).

Santa Fe. USPP 10,788; 16 Feb. 1999 (List 39).

Springhigh. USPP 16,404; 4 Apr. 2006 (List 43).

Springwide. USPP 16,333; 14 Mar. 2006 (List 43).

Vernon. USPP 18,291; 11 Dec. 2007 (List 43).

CHERRY—SWEET

Ridgewood (BlackGold™), USPP 17,301; 26 Dec. 2006 (Lists 41, 43).

GRAPE

Autumn King. USPP 16,284; 21 Feb. 2006 (List 43).

Scarlet Royal. USPP 16,229; 31 Jan. 2006 (List 43).

GRAPE ROOTSTOCK

RS-3. USPP 16,291; 28 Feb. 2006 (List 43).

PEACH

White County. USPP 17,742; 15 May 2007 (List 43).

White Rock. USPP 17,911; 7 Aug. 2007 (List 43).

PLUM ROOTSTOCK

Empyrean™ 1. See Barrier 1 (List 41).

Krymsk 86™ see Ap-1 (List 42).

Ap-1. USPP 16,272; 21 Feb. 2006 (List 42).

Empyrean™ 2. See Penta (List 41).

Empyrean™ 3. See Tetra (List 41).

Empyrean™ 101. See Adesoto 101 (List 38).

STRAWBERRY

Brunswick. USPP 16,859; 25 July 2006 (List 40).

Cabot. USPP 16,971; 8 Aug. 2006 (List 39).

Carmine. USPP 18,261; 4 Dec. 2007 (List 43).

Clancy. USPP 16,571; 23 May 2006 (List 42).

La Clé des Champs. USPP 17,381; 23 Jan. 2007 (List 42).

L'Amour. USPP 16,480; 25 Apr. 2006 (List 42).

Saint-Jean d'Orleans. USPP 18,111; 9 Oct. 2007 (List 42).

Wendy. USPP 18,340; 25 Dec. 2007 (List 43).

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Contributor Notes

Very special thanks to Colleen McCall, Program Technician II, Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, for her exceptional work in compiling, editing, researching, and other contributions in the preparation of List 44.

zSpecial thanks to the crop contributors for compiling this information. Individuals with cultivars to describe should contact the crop editors directly.

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