‘Lakota’ Pecan

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  • 1 Pecan Genetics and Breeding Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 10200 FM50, Somerville, TX 77879
  • 2 Pecan Experiment Field, Kansas State University, Box 247, Chetopa, KS 67336

‘Lakota’ is a new pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivar released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service and the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Kansas State University. ‘Lakota’ is being released because of its high nut quality, high yield potential, early nut maturity, and excellent tree strength. Pecans from this cultivar can be sold in shell or shelled to produce a large proportion of halves and large pieces.

Origin

USDA conducts the only national pecan breeding program. Crosses are made at Brownwood and College Station, TX (Grauke and Thompson, 1996; Thompson and Grauke, 1991; Thompson and Young, 1985). Seedling clones are established on their own roots or budded to pollarded trees for the initial 10-year testing phase at College Station. Superior clones then enter National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System, where they are tested across the U.S. pecan belt in cooperation with state researchers and private growers. After several years, the best clones are given Native American tribe names and released to nurseries for propagation of trees to be sold to growers. USDA cultivars are never patented, and after release, growers can propagate the new cultivar as much as desired.

The ‘Lakota’ are a Native American tribe and one of the seven tribes that make up the Great Sioux Nation (Hodge, 1975). They speak Lakota, one of the three major dialects of the Sioux language. They are the westernmost of the three Sioux groups that occupy land in both North and South Dakota. Today they are found mostly in the five reservations of western South Dakota.

‘Lakota’, tested as selection 64-6-502, is a progeny from a 1964 cross between the ‘Mahan’ and ‘Major’ cultivars made by L. D. Romberg at Brownwood, TX. ‘Mahan’ originated in Kosciusko, Attala County, MS, by J. M. Chestnutt (Brooks and Olmo, 1956). The parentage of ‘Mahan’ is unknown, but probably one parent is ‘Schley’ (‘Eastern Schley’) (Thompson and Young, 1985). ‘Mahan’ has proven to be a superior parent in the USDA Breeding Program, being the parent of five other USDA cultivars. It contributes nut size, scab resistance, precocity, superior leaf health, and tree vigor. All seedlings of ‘Mahan’ are protogynous because this cultivar is homozygous-dominant for this genetic characteristic (Thompson and Romberg, 1985). ‘Major’ is an old native from the Green River, Henderson County, KY (Thompson and Young, 1985). ‘Major’ is scab-resistant and has early nut maturity. It was long considered the best of the northern cultivars but now has been largely replaced by newer superior USDA/state cultivars. It is also the female parent of two other USDA cultivars, ‘Osage’ (Thompson et al., 1991) and ‘Kanza’ (Thompson et al., 1997). It has been a main source of early nut maturity and scab resistance for the USDA Pecan Breeding Program.

Description

Yield data indicate that ‘Lakota’ has adequate precocity, similar to ‘Pawnee’. In a 7-year yield test grafted in 1988 at Chetopa, KS, ‘Lakota’ averaged 1095 kg·ha−1, compared with 896 kg for ‘Osage’ and 528 kg for ‘Witte’ (Table 1). Note that this average includes 4 “on” years and 3 “off” years, so the yield figures may be slightly inflated if ever compared with an even number of years. In another test (data not shown) at Comanche, TX, data were collected for 5 years (1988 to 1992). Each plots consisted of two trees with four replications and spacing was 9.15 m × 7.32 m. ‘Lakota’ had 4.03 nuts per cluster compared with 2.86 for ‘Pawnee’ and 3.91 for ‘Wichita’. In this same Comanche test, percent terminals with clusters was 44.9 for ‘Lakota’ compared with 30.3 for ‘Pawnee’ and 40.9 for ‘Wichita’. Thus, the alternate bearing tendency (Pearce and Dobersek-Urbanc, 1967) of ‘Lakota’ (Table 1) appears to be at least partially the result of large cluster size and high percent fruiting shoots. It may be possible to reduce the effects of alternate bearing by midsummer fruit thinning.

Table 1.

National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System data from a replicated test at Chetopa, KS, grafted in 1988 comparing the yield (kg·ha−1) of the Lakota pecan with other cultivars.

Table 1.

Average nut weight is 6.8 g for ‘Lakota’ compared with 7.6 g for ‘Pawnee’ and 6.1 g for ‘Kanza’ (Table 2). Nut percent kernel averages 56.8 and kernel color is excellent (Fig. 1). ‘Lakota’ has proven to be a producer of high-quality nuts and has become a favorite among customers who buy pecans from the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.

Table 2.

National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System nut quality data from a replicated test at Chetopa, KS, grafted in 1988 comparing the Lakota pecan with other cultivars.z

Table 2.
Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Nuts and kernels of the ‘Lakota’ pecan.

Citation: HortScience horts 43, 1; 10.21273/HORTSCI.43.1.250

Time of spring budbreak is similar to ‘Kanza’ and ‘Pawnee’. ‘Lakota’ is protogynous (Fig. 2) with early to midseason receptivity and midseason to late pollen shed (similar to ‘Kanza’ and ‘Hopi’). ‘Lakota’ should be a good pollenizer for, and well pollenized by, ‘Pawnee’, ‘Osage’, and ‘Giles’. Time of nut maturity is early, similar to ‘Giles’ and ≈1 week after ‘Pawnee’. ‘Lakota’ has performed well in tests in many northern pecan production areas (Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Oklahoma, and northern Texas).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pollen shed and pistil receptivity for the ‘Lakota’ pecan and control cultivars at College Station, TX, in 2007. Type I, protandrous; type II, protogynous cultivars.

Citation: HortScience horts 43, 1; 10.21273/HORTSCI.43.1.250

Trees are upright in growth habit and develop strong limb angles and a wind-resistant tree structure. ‘Lakota’ is very resistant to scab disease (Table 3) with moderate susceptibility to yellow and black aphids.

Table 3.

Leaf and fruit scab ratings recorded in 1995 for six pecan clones growing near Chetopa, KS, using the Hunter-Roberts scale (Hunter and Roberts, 1978).z

Table 3.

Availability

Graftwood was supplied to nurserymen in the spring of 2007. The USDA does not have any trees for distribution. This cultivar will be deposited in the National Plant Germplasm System where it will be available for research purposes, including development and commercialization of new cultivars. It is requested that appropriate recognition be made if this germplasm contributes to the development of a new cultivar.

Literature Cited

  • Brooks, R.M. & Olmo, H.P. 1956 Register of new fruit and nut varieties List 11. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 68 611 631

  • Grauke, L.J. & Thompson, T.E. 1996 Pecans and hickories 185 239 Janick J.A. & Moore J.N. Fruit breeding III. Nuts. Wiley and Sons, Inc New York

  • Hodge, F.B. 1975 Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico Rowman and Littlefield Totowa, NJ

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  • Hunter, R.E. & Roberts, D.D. 1978 A disease grading system for pecan scab Pecan Quarterly 12 3 6

  • Pearce, S.C. & Dobersek-Urbanc, S. 1967 The management of irregularity in growth and cropping J. Hort. Sci. 42 295 305

  • Thompson, T.E. & Grauke, L.J. 1991 Pecans and other hickories (Carya) 839 904 Moore J.N. & Ballington J.R. Genetic resources of temperate fruit and nut crops Int. Soc. Hort. Sci Wageningen, The Netherlands

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  • Thompson, T.E., Grauke, L.J., Reid, W., Smith, M.W. & Winter, S.R. 1997 ‘Kanza’ pecan HortScience 32 139 140

  • Thompson, T.E. & Romberg, L.D. 1985 Inheritance of heterodichogamy in pecan J. Hered. 76 456 458

  • Thompson, T.E. & Young E.F. Jr 1985 Pecan cultivars: Past and present Texas Pecan Growers Assn College Station, TX

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  • Thompson, T.E., Young E.F. Jr & Petersen, H.D. 1991 ‘Osage’ pecan HortScience 26 1098 1099

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Contributor Notes

Mention of a trademark, vendor, or proprietary product does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the USDA and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products that may also be suitable. A USDA employee prepared the article as part of his official duties. Copyright protection under U.S. copyright law is not available for such works, and there is no copyright to transfer. The fact that the private publication in which the article appears is itself copyrighted does not affect the material that is a work product of the U.S. Government, which can be freely reproduced by the public.

Research Geneticist.

Research Horticulturist.

Research and Extension Horticulturist.

To whom reprint requests should be addressed; e-mail tet1@tamu.edu

  • View in gallery

    Nuts and kernels of the ‘Lakota’ pecan.

  • View in gallery

    Pollen shed and pistil receptivity for the ‘Lakota’ pecan and control cultivars at College Station, TX, in 2007. Type I, protandrous; type II, protogynous cultivars.

  • Brooks, R.M. & Olmo, H.P. 1956 Register of new fruit and nut varieties List 11. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 68 611 631

  • Grauke, L.J. & Thompson, T.E. 1996 Pecans and hickories 185 239 Janick J.A. & Moore J.N. Fruit breeding III. Nuts. Wiley and Sons, Inc New York

  • Hodge, F.B. 1975 Handbook of American Indians north of Mexico Rowman and Littlefield Totowa, NJ

    • Export Citation
  • Hunter, R.E. & Roberts, D.D. 1978 A disease grading system for pecan scab Pecan Quarterly 12 3 6

  • Pearce, S.C. & Dobersek-Urbanc, S. 1967 The management of irregularity in growth and cropping J. Hort. Sci. 42 295 305

  • Thompson, T.E. & Grauke, L.J. 1991 Pecans and other hickories (Carya) 839 904 Moore J.N. & Ballington J.R. Genetic resources of temperate fruit and nut crops Int. Soc. Hort. Sci Wageningen, The Netherlands

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, T.E., Grauke, L.J., Reid, W., Smith, M.W. & Winter, S.R. 1997 ‘Kanza’ pecan HortScience 32 139 140

  • Thompson, T.E. & Romberg, L.D. 1985 Inheritance of heterodichogamy in pecan J. Hered. 76 456 458

  • Thompson, T.E. & Young E.F. Jr 1985 Pecan cultivars: Past and present Texas Pecan Growers Assn College Station, TX

    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, T.E., Young E.F. Jr & Petersen, H.D. 1991 ‘Osage’ pecan HortScience 26 1098 1099

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