‘TigerPaw-NR’, a Root-knot Nematode-resistant, Habanero-type Pepper

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  • 1 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, 2700 Savannah Highway, Charleston, SC 29414-5334

‘TigerPaw-NR’ is a new Habanero-type pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) released 9 Jan. 2006 by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘TigerPaw-NR’ is homozygous for a dominant gene conditioning a high level of resistance to the southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Chitwood) Kofoid and White], the peanut root-knot nematode [M. arenaria (Neal) Chitwood], and the tropical root-knot nematode [M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood]. Root-knot nematodes are major pests of peppers in the United States, and all Habanero-type cultivars heretofore available to commercial growers and home gardeners are susceptible (Fery and Thies, 1997). The increasing popularity of pungent peppers in the United States has created an intense interest in Habanero-type peppers, and the release of ‘TigerPaw-NR’ will provide commercial growers and home gardeners access to a root-knot nematode-resistant cultivar.

Origin

‘TigerPaw-NR’ is the product of a conventional backcross breeding procedure to transfer the dominant root-knot nematode resistance gene from a Scotch Bonnet accession into a classical Habanero-type background. The donor parent was PA-426 and the recurrent parent was PA-350. PA-426 is a M. incognita, M. arenaria, and M. javanica nematode-resistant, Scotch Bonnet-type germplasm line that was released by the USDA in 1997 (Fery and Thies, 1998b; Thies and Fery, 2001). PA-350, susceptible to root-knot nematodes, is a Habanero-type cultigen obtained from an heirloom collector. ‘TigerPaw-NR’ was derived from a single BC4F3 plant grown in 2002.

Description

‘TigerPaw-NR’ has a compact plant habit (height = 62 cm, width = 86 cm) and produces lantern-shaped, orange-colored fruit. The period from transplanting to first harvest of mature fruit ranges from 77 to 92 d in Charleston, SC. There are usually two pedicels per axil and the pedicel position at anthesis is intermediate. Flower petal color is white, corolla color is violet, and the stamens have white filaments and purple anthers. At full anthesis, the style is usually the same length or slightly longer than the stamen. The leaves are large and have a lanceolate shape. The stems and leaves are glabrous. There is no visible anthocyanin present on the stems, nodes, branches, petioles, or peduncles. The fruits are attached to the pedicel in a pendant manner (typically one fruit per cluster); the calyx margin shape is dentate; the annular constriction at the junction of the calyx and peduncle is absent; and the pedicels are short, curved, and slender. The fruits are deciduous, i.e., the pedicel and calyx usually remain on the plant at harvest.

The results of three replicated field studies conducted at Charleston, SC, indicate that the fruit characteristics and yield of ‘TigerPaw-NR’ are comparable to those of currently available Habanero-type cultivars (Table 1). Marketable yield ranged from 22,352 kg·ha−1 (four harvest test) to 37,799 kg·ha−1 (eight harvest test); the average marketable yield for the three studies was 27,555 kg·ha−1. A typical fruit weighs 7.8 g and is campanulate or lantern-shaped (2.7 cm wide × 4.4 cm long) (Fig. 1). The shape of the peduncle attachment end of the fruit is truncate, the neck at the base of the fruit is absent, and the shape at the blossom end of the fruit is blunt. The fruit cross-section is slightly corrugated. The fruit wall is thin (1.7 mm). The color of immature fruit is green (Munsell color rating: 5.5 GY 4.8/5.3); the color of harvest-stage fruit is bright orange (Munsell color rating: 4.1 YR 6.0/9.6). The fruits are extremely pungent (348,634 Scoville heat units), and a typical fruit has three locules (average number of locules = 3.25).

Table 1.

Average fruit size and marketable fruit yield of the root-knot nematode-resistant Habanero-type pepper cultivar TigerPaw-NR and the root-knot nematode-susceptible pepper cultivar Habanero grown in three separate trials at Charleston, SC, 2003–2004.z

Table 1.
Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Typical fruit harvested from the root-knot nematode-resistant Habanero-type cultivar TigerPaw-NR.

Citation: HortScience horts 42, 7; 10.21273/HORTSCI.42.7.1721

‘TigerPaw-NR’ is homozygous for a dominant gene that conditions resistance to root-knot nematodes (Fery and Thies, 1998a, 2000). This C. chinense resistance gene is allelic to the dominant gene that conditions much of the southern root-knot nematode resistance in the C. annuum cv. Carolina Cayenne (Fery and Thies, 1998a). ‘Carolina Cayenne’ is a highly resistant cultivar whose resistance is derived from the C. annuum cayenne-type cultivar Carolina Hot (Fery and Dukes, 1986). Fery and Dukes (1996) reported that the resistance in ‘Carolina Hot’ is conditioned by two genes, one dominant and one recessive; they demonstrated that the dominant gene in ‘Carolina Hot’ is allelic to the single dominant gene (N) that conditions the M. incognita resistance in the C. annuum cv. Mississippi Nemaheart. The N gene was first described in 1957 (Hare, 1957). It needs to be noted that the root-knot nematode resistance exhibited by both ‘Carolina Hot’ and ‘Mississippi Nemaheart’ has remained effective for decades; ‘Carolina Hot’ was released in the late 1950s (Martin and Crawford, 1958) and ‘Mississippi Nemaheart’ was released in the mid-1960s (Hare, 1966).

The new cultivar has exhibited a high level of resistance to the southern root-knot nematode in all greenhouse tests; the numbers of galls and egg masses on the roots have always been minimal. The results of an eight-replicate test conducted in greenhouse soil benches infested with M. incognita race 3 showed that ‘TigerPaw-NR’ roots yielded 97% fewer M. incognita eggs per g fresh root than did roots of the susceptible recurrent parent PA-350 (Table 2). The resistance exhibited by ‘TigerPaw-NR’ is equal to that exhibited by the donor of the resistant gene, PA-426.

Table 2.

Average root-gall index, average egg mass index, and average number of eggs per gram fresh root tissue for PA-426 (Scotch Bonnet-type donor parent of resistance gene), PA-350 (susceptible Habanero-type recurrent parent), and TigerPaw-NR plants grown in soil infested with the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 3 (greenhouse experiment).z

Table 2.

The root-knot nematode-resistant ‘TigerPaw-NR’ is recommended for use by both commercial growers and home gardeners. It should be particularly valuable as a home garden cultivar because home gardeners do not have easy access to alternative production sites. Additionally, few nematicides are registered for noncommercial use, and most home gardeners are not licensed to purchase and apply nematicides.

Availability

Protection for ‘TigerPaw-NR’ is being sought under the Plant Variety Protection Act. Genetic material of this release will be deposited in the National Plant Germplasm System where it will be available for research purposes, including the development and commercialization of new cultivars. It is requested that appropriate recognition of source be given when this germplasm contributes to research or development of a new breeding line or cultivar.

Literature Cited

  • Fery, R.L. & Dukes, P.D. 1986 ‘Carolina Cayenne’ pepper HortScience 21 330

  • Fery, R.L. & Dukes, P.D. 1996 The inheritance of resistance to the southern root-knot nematode in ‘Carolina Hot’ cayenne pepper J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 121 1024 1027

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  • Fery, R.L. & Thies, J.A. 1997 Evaluation of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cultigens for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode HortScience 32 923 926

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fery, R.L. & Thies, J.A. 1998a Genetic analysis of resistance to the southern root-knot nematode in Capsicum chinense Jacq J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 123 1008 1011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fery, R.L. & Thies, J.A. 1998b PA-353, PA-398, and PA-426: Southern root-knot nematode-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq. germplasm lines HortScience 33 760 761

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fery, R.L. & Thies, J.A. 2000 Inheritance of resistance to the peanut root-knot nematode in Capsicum chinense J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 125 615 618

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hare, W.W. 1957 Inheritance of resistance to root-knot nematodes in pepper Phytopathology 47 455 459

  • Hare, W.W. 1966 New pimiento is resistant to nematodes Mississippi Farm Res. 29 2 1721

  • Hussey, R.S. & Barker, K.R. 1973 A comparison of methods of collecting inocula of Meloidogyne spp., including a new technique Plant Dis. Rptr. 57 1025 1028

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, J.A. & Crawford, J.H. 1958 Carolina Hot pepper South Carolina Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ. 117

  • Thies, J.A. & Fery, R.L. 2001 Characterization of Capsicum chinense cultigens for resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, and M. javanica Plant Dis. 85 267 270

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Contributor Notes

We acknowledge Dr. Paul W. Bosland, Department of Plant & Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, for assistance in obtaining the pungency determination. The technical assistance of Floyd P. Maguire and Sharon Buckner, ARS-USDA, is also gratefully acknowledged.

To whom reprint requests should be addressed; e-mail Richard.Fery@ars.usda.gov.

  • View in gallery

    Typical fruit harvested from the root-knot nematode-resistant Habanero-type cultivar TigerPaw-NR.

  • Fery, R.L. & Dukes, P.D. 1986 ‘Carolina Cayenne’ pepper HortScience 21 330

  • Fery, R.L. & Dukes, P.D. 1996 The inheritance of resistance to the southern root-knot nematode in ‘Carolina Hot’ cayenne pepper J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 121 1024 1027

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fery, R.L. & Thies, J.A. 1997 Evaluation of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cultigens for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode HortScience 32 923 926

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fery, R.L. & Thies, J.A. 1998a Genetic analysis of resistance to the southern root-knot nematode in Capsicum chinense Jacq J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 123 1008 1011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fery, R.L. & Thies, J.A. 1998b PA-353, PA-398, and PA-426: Southern root-knot nematode-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq. germplasm lines HortScience 33 760 761

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fery, R.L. & Thies, J.A. 2000 Inheritance of resistance to the peanut root-knot nematode in Capsicum chinense J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 125 615 618

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hare, W.W. 1957 Inheritance of resistance to root-knot nematodes in pepper Phytopathology 47 455 459

  • Hare, W.W. 1966 New pimiento is resistant to nematodes Mississippi Farm Res. 29 2 1721

  • Hussey, R.S. & Barker, K.R. 1973 A comparison of methods of collecting inocula of Meloidogyne spp., including a new technique Plant Dis. Rptr. 57 1025 1028

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, J.A. & Crawford, J.H. 1958 Carolina Hot pepper South Carolina Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ. 117

  • Thies, J.A. & Fery, R.L. 2001 Characterization of Capsicum chinense cultigens for resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, and M. javanica Plant Dis. 85 267 270

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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