Morphologic Variation for Fruit Characteristics in the USDA/ARS Capsicum baccatum L. Germplasm Collection

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  • 1 USDA/ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Unit, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, GA 30224

Mature fruit of 295 accessions of Capsicum baccatum from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were characterized for fruit length, width, weight, and color. Mean fruit weight was determined to be 5.91 g with a range of 0.15 to 22.8 g. Mean fruit length was 6.01 cm with a range of 0.8 to 16.0 cm. Mean fruit width was 1.86 cm and a range of 0.5 to 4.75 cm. Distributions of all characteristics were positively skewed and failed the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality. The distribution of fruit weight values was the most highly skewed, possibly reflecting a more intense human selection pressure for this characteristic. Distributions of fruit width, length, weight, and length:width were leptokurtic (long-tailed). Ninety-three percent of accessions were elongate. Mature fruit colors included red (73.6%), orange (19.7%), yellow (3%), green (0.3%), and mixed (3%). These data suggest that variability for mature fruit characteristics within this germplasm collection is considerable and that variability for fruit length, width, weight, and color is sufficient to provide the basis for the improvement of the aji crop.

Abstract

Mature fruit of 295 accessions of Capsicum baccatum from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were characterized for fruit length, width, weight, and color. Mean fruit weight was determined to be 5.91 g with a range of 0.15 to 22.8 g. Mean fruit length was 6.01 cm with a range of 0.8 to 16.0 cm. Mean fruit width was 1.86 cm and a range of 0.5 to 4.75 cm. Distributions of all characteristics were positively skewed and failed the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality. The distribution of fruit weight values was the most highly skewed, possibly reflecting a more intense human selection pressure for this characteristic. Distributions of fruit width, length, weight, and length:width were leptokurtic (long-tailed). Ninety-three percent of accessions were elongate. Mature fruit colors included red (73.6%), orange (19.7%), yellow (3%), green (0.3%), and mixed (3%). These data suggest that variability for mature fruit characteristics within this germplasm collection is considerable and that variability for fruit length, width, weight, and color is sufficient to provide the basis for the improvement of the aji crop.

Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Willd.) Eshbaugh, commonly referred to as “aji,” is one of the five cultivated species in this genus (Eshbaugh, 1968, 1970; Pickersgill, 1969). Archeological and other evidence suggests that the cultivated ajis (var. pendulum) were derived from the wild C. baccatum var. baccatum L. that are known as “arivivi” in Bolivia (Eshbaugh, 1976; McLeod et al., 1983; Pickersgill et al., 1979). Domestication of C. baccatum var. baccatum is believed to have occurred in Peru approximately 2500 bc (DeWitt and Bosland, 1996; Pickersgill, 1969), and the crop subsequently improved by pre-Incan civilizations. That is, selection occurred then for both fruit size and persistence. Today, the domesticated ajis are quite diverse in the size, shape, and color of their fruits (DeWitt and Bosland, 1996), whereas those of the wild form are considered less so (Eshbaugh, 1970). The pods of the cultivated ajis have a distinctive fruity flavor and they are widely used in salsas, ceviches, and as dried powders (DeWitt and Bosland, 1996).

Although both the cultivated and the wild forms of C. baccatum are indigenous to South America, the distribution of C. baccatum var. baccatum has been reported as more restricted than that of its cultivated counterpart, being limited primarily to northern Argentina, Bolivia, southwestern Brazil, western Paraguay, and central Peru with a center of diversity/origin in Bolivia/Peru (D'Arcy and Eshbaugh, 1974; Eshbaugh, 1970; Hunziker, 1950). The cultivated C. baccatum var. pendulum is native from the lowlands to the middle elevations in the previously noted countries in addition to parts of Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, and a larger area within Brazil. Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum has been introduced to Central America, Hawaii, the mainland United States, and elsewhere (Smith and Heiser, 1957). A third variety C. baccatum var. praetermissum (Heiser & P.G. Sm.) Hunz. (Hunziker, 1971) is believed to have arisen from isolated populations of C. baccatum var. baccatum. Its distribution appears to be restricted to southern Brazil (McLeod et al., 1983).

Morphologic differences within and between the cultivated ajis (var. pendulum) and the wild C. baccatum var. baccatum were discussed by D'Arcy and Eshbaugh (1974), who described both varieties as having off-white corollas with a pair of yellowish, greenish, or tan markings at the base of each lobe, a calyx with five distinct teeth, and yellow anthers. The fruit of C. baccatum var. pendulum can be brown, red, orange, or lemon yellow. Its fruit are pendant (very rarely erect), persistent, firm-fleshed, and variously shaped—usually elongate and very rarely globose (D'Arcy and Eshbaugh, 1974). In contrast, fruit of C. baccatum var. baccatum typically have red fruit that are erect (very rarely pendant), deciduous, globose to oblong in shape, and 4 to 13 mm long and 3 to 7 mm wide. Although some authors have noted the ease with which these two varieties can be separated from another based on morphologic characteristics (Eshbaugh, 1970; Jensen et al., 1979), others have observed that C. baccatum var. baccatum intergrades into domesticated C. baccatum (Eshbaugh, 1980; Pickersgill et al., 1979).

Fruit color, size, shape, and so on, contribute to the quality of the aji crop. Manipulation of or selection for one or more morphologic characteristics can result in improved phenotypes. To date, relatively limited information is available on the extent of variability present for fruit characteristics of accessions within existing germplasm collections of C. baccatum. This study was conducted to examine the variability for mature fruit morphologic characteristics [length., width, length:weight (L:W), weight, and color] among 295 accessions of C. baccatum (vars. baccatum and pendulum) in the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection (Jarret et al., 1990).

Materials and Methods

Seed of a total of 295 accessions of Capsicum baccatum were obtained from the USDA/ARS genebank in Griffin, Ga., and sown in the greenhouse in Mar. 2004. These materials represent the total of all accessions of this species currently in the USDA/ARS germplasm collection whose taxonomic identification has been verified. Individual accessions were acquired from a variety of countries, including Argentina (9), Bolivia (39), Brazil (72), Bulgaria (2), Chile (5), Colombia (5), Costa Rica (24), Ecuador (22), Guatemala (2), Guyana (1), Hungary (1), India (3), Mexico (4), Paraguay (21), Peru (65), Philippines (1), Russian Federation (2), the United States (12), Uruguay (4), and Venezuela (1). Twenty to 25 seedlings/genotype were transplanted to the field in May into rows ≈2 m apart (0.25 m between plants within rows). Plants received fertilization, irrigation, and weed and pest control measures as required.

Descriptive data were recorded using an in-house descriptor list. Information on individual descriptors and their states can be viewed at www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/desclist.pl?116. One hundred fully mature fruit of each genotype were harvested at random from 20 plants/genotype (five fruit/plant), weighed, measured, L:W ratios calculated, and photographed. Values for each characteristic were averaged within accessions and these means further analyzed using SigmaStat (ver. 3.1). Digital images of the fruit of the accessions used in this study can be viewed at www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/acc/acc_queries.html.

Results and Discussion

The statistics for fruit width, length, weight, and L:W for the 295 accessions of C. baccatum examined are presented in Table 1. Fruit width averaged 1.86 cm and ranged from 0.5 cm (PI 238061, 439384, and 639129) to 4.75 cm (PI 441551). Fruit length averaged 6.01 cm with a range of 0.8 cm (PI 439380 and 633751) to 16.0 cm (PI 260585). Average fruit weight was 5.9 g with a range of 0.15 g (PI 639129) to 22.8 g (Grif 9210). Fruit L:W averaged 4.08 with a range of 0.50 (PI 439368) to 12.00 (PI 260535). Fruit shapes were similar to those described by DeWitt and Bosland (1996). Ninety-three percent of accessions were elongate with a L:W greater than 1.0. These and other data presented in Table 1 provide a profile of the fruit characteristics of this species.

Table 1.

General statistics on four fruit parameters among 295 accessions of Capsicum baccatum.

Table 1.

As indicated in Table 1 and Figure 1, the distributions of the values for mature fruit length, width, weight, and L:W were positively skewed. Assuming that selection for fruit size occurred over the course of the domestication of this species, as seems relatively certain (Eshbaugh, 1980; McLeod et al., 1982; Pickersgill, 1971), positively skewed distributions for these characteristics would be expected because major genes conditioning these traits were rapidly pyramided. All distributions failed the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (Stuart and Ord, 1987), indicating nonnormality. The distributions of fruit weight and fruit width values were more positively skewed (1.29 and 1.00, respectively) than distributions for fruit length (0.76) or L:W (0.044). Distributions for fruit length, width, weight, and L:W were leptokurtic (Table 1; Fig. 1), having longer-than-expected tails. Observed ranges for fruit length and width were in relative agreement with those of Eshbaugh (1970), who noted ranges of 0.4 to 17.2 cm in fruit length and 0.3 to 2.6 cm in fruit width among 36 accessions of the species examined.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Frequency distribution of 295 accessions of Capsicum baccatum for (A) fruit weight, (B) length, (C) width, and (D) length:width.

Citation: HortScience horts 42, 5; 10.21273/HORTSCI.42.5.1303

A variety of mature fruit colors were recorded among the 295 accessions of C. baccatum. These included red [217 (73.6%)], orange [58 (19.7%)], yellow [9 (3%)], and green [1 (0.3%)]. Ten accessions (3.4%) yielded mixtures of red and yellow or red and orange mature fruit. Although the occurrence of brown- (or chocolate) colored mature fruit was reported in this species by Eshbaugh (1970), brown fruit were not observed in this study, suggesting the absence of the full range of variability for this characteristic. Some accessions yielded fruit of more than a single color. This can be attributed to the occurrence of accessions that were segregating for fruit color and also accessions that were likely originally obtained as mixtures of two or more distinct forms.

Previous investigators (Eshbaugh, 1970; Pickersgill et al., 1979) examined the morphologic variation present in this species to assess the validity of its division into the two currently recognized varieties, var. baccatum and var. pendulum. Before 1961, C. baccatum var. baccatum and C. baccatum var. pendulum were recognized as C. microcarpum Cav. and C. pendulum Willd., respectively. Hunziker (1961) suggested uniting these into a single species, C. baccatum. Eshbaugh (1970) subsequently provided justification for their classification as varieties. Although defining the validity of the two varieties is tangential to the purposes of the present study, it is of interest to note that the bimodal distributions for mature fruit length and width that were reported and used by Eshbaugh (1970) to separate the species into two varieties were not observed (Figs. 1). It seems likely that the bimodal distributions previously reported may have been the result of the relatively small sample size used. However, the absence of bimodal distributions for these or other fruit characteristics neither supports nor disproves the validity of the current two-varietal classification system. Such a division should be based on a broader range of characteristics than those reported here (Pickersgill et al., 1979). More or less continuous distributions for the characters analyzed would appear to support the evolution of the large-fruited domesticated types from the smaller-fruited form.

As noted by Pickersgill et al. (1979), the distinction between wild peppers with small red deciduous erect fruits and domesticated peppers with large pendant nondeciduous fruit of various colors is not clearcut. Many of the characters initially used to define the two varieties do not appear to be unique to either. For example, although data on fruit persistence were not recorded, deciduous large-fruited accessions were observed as were upright, persistent small-fruited forms. The occurrence of nondeciduous upright fruit in an accession of the nondomesticated Capsicum cardenasii Heiser & P.G. Sm. (PI 590507) has also been observed. Although fruit of C. baccatum var. baccatum are typically red (Eshbaugh, 1970), accessions of C. baccatum with orange or yellow fruit that were both small and upright and that otherwise shared many of the characteristics of var. baccatum have been reported (DeWitt and Bosland, 1996). Among the materials examined in the present study, pedicels of most accessions were erect, or nearly so, at anthesis. Pendant small-fruited accessions of C. baccatum were not observed. Large-fruited accessions with upright fruit were not observed and were not expected. As fruit size increased as the result of human selection, the relatively long pedicel characteristic of C. baccatum could no longer support the fruit in an upright position, and the fruit became pendant. Thus, pendant fruit are a manifestation of human selection for fruit size in the absence of selection for enhanced pedicel strength (or perhaps in the absence of genetic variability within C. baccatum for this characteristic) and not necessarily a reflection of any inherent difference in the initial orientation of the fruit. Numerous transitional forms with smallish to moderately sized semipendulous fruit were observed (for example, PI 188481, 215739, 260564, 281313, and 439409).

Efforts to use biochemical/molecular methods to differentiate var. baccatum from var. pendulum have met with limited success. For example, Ballard et al. (1970) noted that the flavonoid profiles of both varieties were identical. Jensen et al. (1979) reported that C. baccatum var. pendulum and C. baccatum var. baccatum could not be differentiated from each other based on isozymes (23 loci, 63 alleles), although C. baccatum var. praetermissum was distinct from both of these. Walsh and Hoot (2001) separated the two varieties from one another using sequence data obtained from waxy introns and atpB-rbcL noncoding spacer regions. However, because only a single accession of each variety was included in the study, the possibility that those differences reflected only intraspecific variability cannot be discounted. Additional or more recent studies either did not include both varieties or did not identify them as such (Buso et al., 2003; Prince et al., 1995; Rodriquez et al., 1999; Toquica et al., 2003) From a practical standpoint, the absence of a single defining characteristic that might be used to differentiate semidomesticated forms from either the wild (var. baccatum) or domesticated (var. pendulum) forms precludes the unequivocal identification of these forms.

Crop germplasm collecting/acquisition frequently occurs as opportunity permits and not always in a systematic or comprehensive manner. A collector's perception of what constitutes unique or potentially valuable material may be influenced (biased) by the extent of the collector's previous exposure to the diversity already characterized within the taxa being collected. Hence, a thorough and random sampling of the gene pool of many crop plants and their wild relatives has not always been accomplished. The accessions evaluated in the present study, although substantially greater in number than in previous studies (DeWitt and Bosland 1996; Eshbaugh, 1970) represent only a portion of the phenotypic diversity present in the C. baccatum gene pool. For example, the orange- or yellow-fruited forms of C. baccatum var. baccatum described by DeWitt and Bosland (1996) and the chocolate-colored forms of var. pendulum noted by Eshbaugh (1970) were not observed. Several fruit shapes reported by DeWitt and Bosland (1996) were also not observed.

The data presented suggest that variability for mature fruit characteristics within the USDA/ARS C. baccatum germplasm collection is somewhat representative of the diversity within this species, and that variability for fruit morphologic characteristics is likely sufficient to provide the basis for the improvement of the aji crop. Incongruities in the distributions for the fruit characteristics that were observed can almost certainly be attributed in part to inadequate sampling of the gene pool.

Literature Cited

  • Ballard, R.E., McClure, J.W., Eshbaugh, W.H. & Wilson, K.G. 1970 A chemosystematic study of selected taxa of Capsicum Amer. J. Bot. 57 225 233

  • Buso, G.S.C., de Sousa Amaral, Z.P., Bianchetti, L.de B., Borges, F.R. & Ferreira, M.E. 2003 Genetic variability and phylogenetic analysis of Brazilian species of Capsicum Capsicum Eggplant Newsl. 22 13 16

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D'Arcy, W.G. & Eshbaugh, W.H. 1974 New World peppers [Capsicum–Solanaceae] north of Colombia: A resume Baileya 19 93 105

  • DeWitt, D. & Bosland, P.W. 1996 Peppers of the world: An identification guide Ten Speed Press Berkeley, Calif

  • Eshbaugh, W.H. 1968 A nomenclatural note on the genus Capsicum Taxon 17 51 52

  • Eshbaugh, W.H. 1970 A biosystematic and evolutionary study of Capsicum baccatum (Solanaceae) Brittonia 22 31 43

  • Eshbaugh, W.H. 1976 XII. Genetic and biochemical systematic studies of chili peppers (Capsicum–Solanaceae) Bul. Torrey Bot. Club 102 396 403

  • Eshbaugh, W.H. 1980 The taxonomy of the genus Capsicum (Solanaceae)—1980 Phytologia 47 153 166

  • Hunziker, A.T. 1950 Estudios sobre Solanceae. I. Sinopsis de las especies silvestris de Capsicum de Argentina y Paraguay Darwiniana (Buenos Aires) 9 225 247

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunziker, A.T. 1961 Noticia sobre el cultivo de Capsicum baccatum L. (Solanaceae) en Argentina Kurtziana (Cordoba) 1 303

  • Hunziker, A.T. 1971 Estudios sobre Solanaceae. VII. Contribucion al conocimiento de Capsicum generos afines (Witheringia, Achnistus, Athenaea, etc.), Tercera Parte Kurtziana 6 241 259

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jarret, R.L., Spinks, M., Lovell, G. & Gillaspie, A.G. 1990 The S-9 plant germplasm collection at Griffin, GA Diversity 6 23 25

  • Jensen, R.J., McLeod, M.J., Eshbaugh, W.H. & Guttman, S.I. 1979 Numerical taxonomic analyses of allozymic variation in Capsicum (Solanaceae) Taxon 28 315 327

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McLeod, M.J., Guttman, S.I. & Eshbaugh, W.H. 1982 Early evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum) Econ. Bot. 36 361 368

  • McLeod, M.J., Guttman, S.I., Eshbaugh, W.H. & Rayle, R.E. 1983 An electrophoretic study of evolution in Capsicum (Solanaceae) Evolution 37 562 574

  • Pickersgill, B. 1969 The archeological record of chile peppers (Capsicum spp.) and the sequence of plant domestication in Peru Am. Antiq. 34 54 61

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pickersgill, B. 1971 Relationships between weedy and cultivated forms in some species of chili peppers (genus Capsicum) Evolution 25 683 691

  • Pickersgill, B., Heiser, C.B. & McNeil, J. 1979 Numerical taxonomic studies on variation and domestication in some species of Capsicum 678 700 Hawkes J.G., Lester R.N. & Skelding A.D. The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae Academic Press N.Y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prince, J.P., Lackney, V.K., Angeles, C., Blauth, J.R. & Kyle, M.M. 1995 A survey of DNA polymorphism within the genus Capsicum and the fingerprinting of pepper cultivars Genome 38 224 231

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodriquez, J.M., Berke, T., Engle, L. & Nienhuis, J. 1999 Variation among and within Capsicum species revealed by RAPD markers Theor. Appl. Genet. 99 147 156

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, P. & Heiser C.B. Jr 1957 Taxonomy of Capsicum sinense Jacq. and the geographic distribution of the cultivated Capsicum species Bul. Torrey Bot. Club 84 413 420

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stuart, A. & Ord, J.K. 1987 Kendall's advanced theory of statistics Charles Griffin and Co N.Y

  • Toquica, S.P., Duque, M.C., Tohme, J., Rodriquez, F. & Martinez, E. 2003 Molecular characterization by AFLPs of Capsicum germplasm from the Amazon Department in Colombia Genet. Res. Crop Evol. 50 639 647

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walsh, B.M. & Hoot, S.B. 2001 Phylogenetic relationships of Capsicum (Solanaceae) using DNA sequences from two noncoding regions: The choloroplast ATPB-RBCL spacer region and nuclear waxy introns Int. J. Plant Sci. 162 1409 1418

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    • Export Citation

Contributor Notes

  • View in gallery

    Frequency distribution of 295 accessions of Capsicum baccatum for (A) fruit weight, (B) length, (C) width, and (D) length:width.

  • Ballard, R.E., McClure, J.W., Eshbaugh, W.H. & Wilson, K.G. 1970 A chemosystematic study of selected taxa of Capsicum Amer. J. Bot. 57 225 233

  • Buso, G.S.C., de Sousa Amaral, Z.P., Bianchetti, L.de B., Borges, F.R. & Ferreira, M.E. 2003 Genetic variability and phylogenetic analysis of Brazilian species of Capsicum Capsicum Eggplant Newsl. 22 13 16

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D'Arcy, W.G. & Eshbaugh, W.H. 1974 New World peppers [Capsicum–Solanaceae] north of Colombia: A resume Baileya 19 93 105

  • DeWitt, D. & Bosland, P.W. 1996 Peppers of the world: An identification guide Ten Speed Press Berkeley, Calif

  • Eshbaugh, W.H. 1968 A nomenclatural note on the genus Capsicum Taxon 17 51 52

  • Eshbaugh, W.H. 1970 A biosystematic and evolutionary study of Capsicum baccatum (Solanaceae) Brittonia 22 31 43

  • Eshbaugh, W.H. 1976 XII. Genetic and biochemical systematic studies of chili peppers (Capsicum–Solanaceae) Bul. Torrey Bot. Club 102 396 403

  • Eshbaugh, W.H. 1980 The taxonomy of the genus Capsicum (Solanaceae)—1980 Phytologia 47 153 166

  • Hunziker, A.T. 1950 Estudios sobre Solanceae. I. Sinopsis de las especies silvestris de Capsicum de Argentina y Paraguay Darwiniana (Buenos Aires) 9 225 247

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunziker, A.T. 1961 Noticia sobre el cultivo de Capsicum baccatum L. (Solanaceae) en Argentina Kurtziana (Cordoba) 1 303

  • Hunziker, A.T. 1971 Estudios sobre Solanaceae. VII. Contribucion al conocimiento de Capsicum generos afines (Witheringia, Achnistus, Athenaea, etc.), Tercera Parte Kurtziana 6 241 259

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jarret, R.L., Spinks, M., Lovell, G. & Gillaspie, A.G. 1990 The S-9 plant germplasm collection at Griffin, GA Diversity 6 23 25

  • Jensen, R.J., McLeod, M.J., Eshbaugh, W.H. & Guttman, S.I. 1979 Numerical taxonomic analyses of allozymic variation in Capsicum (Solanaceae) Taxon 28 315 327

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McLeod, M.J., Guttman, S.I. & Eshbaugh, W.H. 1982 Early evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum) Econ. Bot. 36 361 368

  • McLeod, M.J., Guttman, S.I., Eshbaugh, W.H. & Rayle, R.E. 1983 An electrophoretic study of evolution in Capsicum (Solanaceae) Evolution 37 562 574

  • Pickersgill, B. 1969 The archeological record of chile peppers (Capsicum spp.) and the sequence of plant domestication in Peru Am. Antiq. 34 54 61

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pickersgill, B. 1971 Relationships between weedy and cultivated forms in some species of chili peppers (genus Capsicum) Evolution 25 683 691

  • Pickersgill, B., Heiser, C.B. & McNeil, J. 1979 Numerical taxonomic studies on variation and domestication in some species of Capsicum 678 700 Hawkes J.G., Lester R.N. & Skelding A.D. The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae Academic Press N.Y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prince, J.P., Lackney, V.K., Angeles, C., Blauth, J.R. & Kyle, M.M. 1995 A survey of DNA polymorphism within the genus Capsicum and the fingerprinting of pepper cultivars Genome 38 224 231

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodriquez, J.M., Berke, T., Engle, L. & Nienhuis, J. 1999 Variation among and within Capsicum species revealed by RAPD markers Theor. Appl. Genet. 99 147 156

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, P. & Heiser C.B. Jr 1957 Taxonomy of Capsicum sinense Jacq. and the geographic distribution of the cultivated Capsicum species Bul. Torrey Bot. Club 84 413 420

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stuart, A. & Ord, J.K. 1987 Kendall's advanced theory of statistics Charles Griffin and Co N.Y

  • Toquica, S.P., Duque, M.C., Tohme, J., Rodriquez, F. & Martinez, E. 2003 Molecular characterization by AFLPs of Capsicum germplasm from the Amazon Department in Colombia Genet. Res. Crop Evol. 50 639 647

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walsh, B.M. & Hoot, S.B. 2001 Phylogenetic relationships of Capsicum (Solanaceae) using DNA sequences from two noncoding regions: The choloroplast ATPB-RBCL spacer region and nuclear waxy introns Int. J. Plant Sci. 162 1409 1418

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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