1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; SmartFresh; AgroFresh, Spring House, PA) is used widely in the apple industry to control postharvest ripening and quality loss of apples in storage (Fan et al., 1999; Watkins et al., 2000). The product is applied to apple fruit after harvest by fumigating the fruit in a closed space with 1-MCP, which is a gas at normal temperature and pressure (Blankenship and Dole, 2003; Prange and DeLong, 2003; Watkins, 2006). In apples, 1-MCP inhibits perception of ethylene by competing for the binding sites for ethylene in the fruit, thereby slowing ethylene-dependent stimulation of fruit ripening, tissue softening, scald development, loss of acids, volatile production, and fruit breakdown during storage (Binder and Bleecker, 2003; Blankenship and Dole, 2003; DeEll et al., 2002, 2006; DeLong et al., 2004; Fan et al., 1999; Fan and Mattheis, 1999a, 1999b; Lurie et al., 2002; Sisler and Serek, 1997, 2003; Watkins et al., 2000).
With the success of postharvest 1-MCP, interest has grown in the potential for development of a sprayable form of 1-MCP for preharvest application in the orchard and in how such an approach might produce benefits to fruit quality maintenance after delayed harvest and after storage. For the past few years, AgroFresh, the company that manufactures and markets SmartFresh, the commercial form of 1-MCP for postharvest use on apples and other edible horticultural crops, has been developing a sprayable form of this product. A preliminary report by Yuan and Carbaugh (2007) suggested that the sprayable MCP material may have benefit for control of fruit quality loss when harvest is delayed but did not discuss effects on fruit during and after storage.
Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG; ReTain; Valent BioSciences, Walnut Creek, CA), is another product registered for use before harvest on apples and other crops to delay fruit maturity and control preharvest drop (Byers, 1997; Greene, 2002). This product reduces fruit drop and delays fruit maturity by inhibiting the biosynthesis of ethylene in treated fruit tissues (Baker et al., 1978; Bangerth, 1978; Halder-Doll and Bangerth, 1987; Lieberman, 1979). The trials reported here describe results of applications of sprayable 1-MCP to ‘Scarletspur Delicious’ and ‘Cameo’ apple trees in the orchard and compare the effects of sprayable 1-MCP versus postharvest 1-MCP applications, as well as with preharvest treatment with AVG, on fruit quality after short- and long-term storage.
Baker, J.E., Lieberman, M. & Anderson, J.D. 1978 Inhibition of ethylene production in fruit slices by a rhizobitoxine analog and free radical scavengers Plant Physiol. 61 886 888
Bangerth, F. 1978 The effect of a substituted amino acid on ethylene biosynthesis, respiration, ripening and preharvest drop of apple fruits J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 103 401 404
Byers, R.E. 1997 Effects of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on preharvest drop, maturity, and cracking of several apple cultivars J. Tree Fruit Prod. 2 77 97
Byers, R.E., Carbaugh, D.H. & Combs, L.D. 2005 Ethylene inhibitors delay fruit drop, maturity, and increase fruit size of ‘Arlet’ apples HortScience 40 2061 2065
DeEll, J.R., Ayres, J.T. & Murr, D.P. 2006 1-methylcyclopropene influences ‘Empire’ and ‘Delicious’ apple quality during long-term commercial storage HortTechnology 17 46 51
DeEll, J.R., Murr, D.P., Porteous, M.D. & Rupasinghe, H.V.P. 2002 Influence of temperature and duration of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on apple quality Postharvest Biol. Technol. 24 349 353
DeLong, J.M., Prange, R.K. & Harrison, P.A. 2004 The influence of 1-methylcyclopropene on ‘Cortland’ and ‘McIntosh’ apple quality following long-term storage HortScience 39 1062 1065
Fan, X.T. & Mattheis, J.P. 1999a Impact of 1-methylcyclopropene and methyl jasmonate on apple volatile production J. Agr. Food Chem. 47 2847 2853
Fan, X.T. & Mattheis, J.P. 1999b Development of apple superficial scald, soft scald, core flush, and greasiness is reduced by MCP J. Agr. Food Chem. 47 3063 3068
Greene, D.W. 2002 Preharvest drop control and maturity of ‘Delicious’ apples as affected by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) J. Tree Fruit Prod. 3 1 10
Halder-Doll, H. & Bangerth, F. 1987 Inhibition of autocatalytic C2H4-biosynthesis by AVG applications and consequences on the physiological behaviour and quality of apple fruits in cool storage Scientia Hort. 33 87 96
Lurie, S., Pre-Aymard, C., Ravid, U., Larkov, O. & Fallik, E. 2002 Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on volatile emission and aroma in cv. Anna apples J. Agr. Food Chem. 50 4251 4256
Sisler, E.C. & Serek, M. 1997 Inhibitors of ethylene responses in plants at the receptor level: Recent developments Physiol. Plant. 100 577 582
Washington State Legislature 1990 Washington inspection procedures. Washington Agricultural Code (WAC) 16-403-142, 15 Jan. 1990 Washington State Legislature Olympia, WA
Watkins, C.B., Nock, J.F. & Whitaker, B.D. 2000 Responses of early, mid and late season apple cultivars to postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) under air and controlled atmosphere conditions Postharvest Biol. Technol. 19 17 32
Yuan, R.C. & Carbaugh, D.H. 2007 Effects of NAA, AVG and 1-MCP on ethylene biosynthesis, preharvest fruit drop, fruit maturity, and quality of ‘Golden Supreme’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ apples HortScience 42 101 105