(149) Phytoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons with a Lolium multiflorum–Glomus intraradices–Inorganic Fertilization System: Influence on Plant Growth, Antioxidant Activity, Microbial Respiration, and Hydrocarbon Degradation
A phytoremediation study in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial experimental design was conducted to determine the effect of Glomus intraradices (AMF) inoculation and inorganic fertilization on the growth and development of Lolium multiflorum cv. Passarel Plus, and on the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The 80-day study was done with pots containing sandy soil. Seedlings of L. multiflorum were transplanted to uncontaminated or soil contaminated with Arabian crude oil (ACO) at concentrations of 3000 and 15,000 mg·kg-1. Half of the seedlings were inoculated with 500 spores of AMF. Plants were fertilized with Long Ashton Nutrient Solution (LANS) at 0.5×, 1.0×, or 2.0× strength, modified to supply 30 μg·mL-1 P to maximize the AMF establishment. Total plant dry weight and leaf antioxidant activity were reduced by ACO when compared to control plants. The LANS fertilization enhanced plant growth under ACO-contamination, and allowed similar antioxidant activity in plants exposed to 15,000 mg·kg-1. Soil rhizosphere respiration was increased by LANS, particularly with 15,000 mg·kg-1 ACO. AMF inoculation did not enhance plant growth, antioxidant activity, or microbial respiration. The average root colonization was around 30% in contaminated and uncontaminated rhizospheres, indicating that the tolerance of AMF symbiosis to ACO. Greater TPH degradation was achieved in non-AMF plants at 3000 mg·kg-1 ACO in combination with 0.5× LANS. LANS-fertilization with 1.0× or 2.0× did not enhance TPH-degradation when compared to 0.5× LANS.
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