Euonymus alata is an attractive landscape plant that has been reported to be an invasive species. Genetic modification through transformation is a method of reducing its invasiveness by producing sterile cultivars having limited or no seed production. A critical step in Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the production of adventitious shoots. E. alata internodes and leaves from in vitro cultures were tested for adventitious shoot production on 16 plant growth regulator combinations: four levels of 6-benzylamino purine (BA) and three auxin treatments [0.5 or 0.25 mg·L-1 indole-3-butyric acid and 0.1 mg·L-1 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)], as well as no auxin. The optimal BA levels were found to be 0.5 or 1.0 mg·L-1 for maximizing the number of explants forming shoots and for producing the greatest number of shoots per explant. Culturing on NAA gave the greatest number of shoots per explant with both 0.5 and 1.0 mg·L-1 BA. Shoot production from internode segments was markedly superior to leaves. An initial dark treatment of 10 days did not influence shoot production. Using 1.0 mg BA with 0.1 mg·L-1 NAA, E. alata internodes were transformed with A. tumefaciens EHA105 carrying Kanamycin resistance and β-glucuronidase genes. Transformed shoots were selected on 30 mg·L-1 Kanamycin. Of the 36 shoots produced, 16 were confirmed to be transformed by β-glucuronidase histochemistry. Treatment with rooting powder containing indole-3-butyric acid did not aid rooting of shoots, but after 3 months in soil in high humidity, 21 of 24 E. alata shoots from tissue culture were rooted and acclimated.
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