The Geneva® Apple Rootstock Breeding program, which was initiated in 1968 by Dr. James Cummins and Dr. Herb Aldwinckle of Cornell University and which has been continued as a joint breeding program with the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) since 1998, has released a new semi-dwarfing apple rootstock which is named Geneva® 935 or G.935. G.935 (a progeny from a 1976 cross of `Ottawa 3' × `Robusta 5') is a selection that has been widely tested at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, N.Y., in commercial orchards in the United States and at research stations across the United States and Canada. G.935 is a semi-dwarfing rootstock that produces a tree slightly larger than M.26. G.935 is the most precocious and productive semi-dwarf rootstock we have released. It has had similar yield efficiency to M.9 along with excellent fruit size and wide crotch angles. It showed no symptoms of winter damage during the 1994 test winter in N.Y. G.935 is resistant to fire blight and Phytophthora; however. it is susceptible to infestations by woolly apple aphids. G.935 has shown tolerance to replant disease complex in several trials. It has good propagation characteristics in the stool bed and produces a large tree in the nursery. G.935 has better graft union strength than M.9, but will require a trellis or individual tree stake in the orchard to support the large crops when the tree is young. G.935 will be a possible replacement for M.26. Suggested orchards planting densities with this rootstock are 1,500-2,500 trees/ha. It has been released for propagation and sale by licensed nurseries. Liners will be available in the near future.
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