Carrot (Daucus carota L.) root cracking and breakage during harvest and handling operations result in serious losses. The environmental and management factors affecting carrot cracking and breakage susceptibility were investigated in a survey of fields and a series of trials conducted in California from 2000–02. Roots, leaves and soil were collected from a total of 31 commercial fields of `Sugar Snax' carrot, and soil texture and plant and soil fertility status were determined. Soil moisture was monitored in 10 fields to determine whether irrigation management was correlated with root cracking susceptibility; in 4 of these fields roots were harvested both before 0800 hr and at 1300 hr on the same day to directly compare the effects of root water status on cracking. The effect of N fertilization on cracking and breakage was investigated in 5 field trials. The relative susceptibility of 10 cultivars to cracking and breakage was also compared. Cracking susceptibility was determined with an impact test, and breakage with a loading test. Roots were selected by size (18 to 24 mm diameter) and cooled to 5 °C before testing. The percentage of roots cracked in the impact test varied from 7% to 75% among survey fields. Initial root water potential was not correlated with cracking incidence. However, after hydrating roots to minimize differences in water potential among fields, cracking incidence was correlated with turgor potential (r = 0.41). Soil sand content and mean air temperature in the 30 days preceding harvest were also correlated with cracking (r = –0.48 and 0.36, respectively), suggesting that cracking susceptibility may be minimized in cool weather and in light-textured soil. Irrigation management in the final 30 days preceding harvest had no consistent effect on root cracking. Time of day of harvest had a small but significant effect, with roots harvested before 0800 hr being more crack-susceptible. N fertilization in excess of that required to maximize root yield significantly increased cracking susceptibility. Cultivars varied widely in cracking susceptibility, with less variation in tissue strength and stiffness. Removal of the periderm dramatically decreased susceptibility to both cracking and breakage.