A `Regina'/Gisela 6 sweet cherry orchard was planted in April 2001 to evaluate a row cover (RC) made of black, woven polypropylene fabric, in water conservation. Trees were trained to a central leader and planted at 3 m x 5.4 m. Soil water content and tree growth variables were compared for trees growing with or without a 2.4 m-wide RC. Irrigation of all trees replenished approximately 80% of weekly evaporation rate. Trees with RC maintained consistently higher (30% to 40%) soil moisture content at 30 cm depth than non-RC trees. In Spring 2003, trees in RC had significantly larger trunk cross sectional area (34%), height (7%), total wood length (65%), total number of branches (20%) and number of 1-year-old-shoots (45%) compared to trees with no row cover. Length of 1-year-old wood for trees in RC was two-fold that of non-covered trees. In Summer 2003, RC had no clear effect on bloom time, intensity or duration. Fruit yields were light and not affected by RC, but fruit size was slightly larger for trees in RC. Although trees were not fertilized, foliar nitrogen content was significantly higher and leaf green color was notably darker green for trees with RC. During Spring and Summer 2003, soil temperatures under RC at 5-cm and-10 cm depths were generally 1 °C to 2 °C warmer than in non-covered ground. The RC did not affect air temperature at 10 cm and 30 cm above ground. It is speculated that RC promoted tree growth by a combined increased available soil moisture and warmer root temperatures, which favor root development and nutrient uptake, particularly in the absence of competing weeds. Increased branching in trees with RC is unclear. It is possible that light quality above RC triggers developmental changes resulting in increased vegetative budbreak.