Pierce's Disease (PD) is a major factor limiting grape production in the southeast United State. This disease is caused by a bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., which is transmitted to the xylem system of the grapevines primarily by glassy-winged sharpshooters (Homalodisca coagulata Say). Once it is in the xylem, the X. fastidiosa will use the xylem sap as a nutrient source to multiply, colonize, and eventually plug the xylem vessels and cause the PD in susceptible cultivars. On the other hand, symptoms of PD in tolerant cultivars do not appear until fruit maturation, and symptoms are rarely observed in PD resistant cultivars. In order to understand the correlation between X. fastidiosa and PD symptom development, a study was initialed to monitor X. fastidiosa in xylem of resistant, tolerant, and susceptible vines on a monthly basis. Presence of X. fastidiosa was detected directly from xylem sap of field-grown vines by medium culture and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Xylella fastidiosa was detectable throughout the growing season in PD susceptible cultivar `Chardonnay', PD tolerant Florida hybrid grape `Blanc du Bois', and muscadine cultivar `Carlos'. The bacteria were also appeared in the dormant vines with high density in cultivars `Chardonnay' and `Blanc du Bios'. Although X. fastidiosa was also found in dormant canes of `Carlos', the density decreased throughout the late fall and winter months, and they were hardly found before June. The results indicated that X. fastidiosa were carried over from previous season in cultivars `Chardonnay' and `Blanc du Bois', while in PD tolerant cultivar `Carlos', they were newly acquired from the sharpshooter feedings during the growing season.
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