Surfactants Increase Toxicity of Glyphosate and 2,4-D to Brazil Pusley

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  • 1 University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Citrus Research and Education Center, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, FL 33850-2229

Various combinations of glyphosate and 2,4-D (± surfactant) were evaluated for control of Brazil pusley [Richardia brasiliensis (Moq.) Gomez]. Typical 2,4-D symptoms on plants were manifested within 2 to 3 days after treatment. Application of glyphosate alone had only marginal effects (14%) on Brazil pusley, but the addition of Induce® (nonionic surfactant) significantly increased control to 83% and reduced the fresh weight by 68%. Application of Landmaster®II or a tank-mix of glyphosate + 2,4-D (± surfactants) resulted in 96% to 100% control. Treatment with 2,4-D alone, or with Induce®, or L-77® (organosilicone surfactant) resulted in 84%, 90%, or 100% control, respectively. Very low fresh weights of Brazil pusley were recorded when 2,4-D +Induce® or L-77®, Landmaster®II (± surfactants), or the tank-mix (± surfactants) were applied. In the regrowth studies, shoot weight was greater following application of glyphosate with or without L-77® or Kinetic® (a blend of nonionic and organosilicone) than following other treatments. The fresh weight of the shoots in the regrowth study, recorded following the application of 2,4-D or Landmaster®II (± surfactants), was very low except when Kinetic® was added to Landmaster®II. No regrowth of shoots occurred following the tank-mix treatment. Similar observations were recorded for roots. Plants treated with 2,4-D did not regrow. The presence of 2,4-D in either formulation accelerated synergistic effect of the glyphosate to the target site. Therefore, 2,4-D could be used either as a component of a formulation or in a tank-mix with glyphosate to control Brazil pusley. Chemical names used: N-(phosphonomethyl glycine) (glyphosate); 2,4-dicholorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).

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