A Stenospermocarpic, Seedless Vitis vinifera × Vitis rotundifolia Hybrid Developed by Embryo Rescue

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  • 1 Postharvest Quality and Genetics Research Unit, Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2021 South Peach Avenue, Fresno, CA 93727
  • | 2 Postharvest Quality and Genetics Research Unit, Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2021 South Peach Avenue, Fresno, CA 93727

Hybridizations between seedless Vitis vinifera L. genotypes and V. rotundifolia (Michx.) were made specifically to introgress the seedless trait into the disease-resistant background of V. rotundifolia. The seedless, gynoecious P79-101 was hybridized with three V. rotundifolia parents, producing a total of 102 ovules. From these ovules, 44 embryos developed, producing 20 plants. Isozyme analyses and morphological traits confirmed that 19 of the plants were hybrids. Sixteen were planted in an experimental vineyard at California State Univ. Fresno. One seedling, C41-5, produced seedless fruit that appeared to be stenospermocarpic based on fruit and aborted seed size. Fruit weight was slightly less than that of `Thompson Seedless' (stenospermocarpic) and at least twice that of parthenocarpic fruit of `Black Corinth' and C41-7, a seeded hybrid with many parthenocarpic fruit. Aborted seeds of C41-5 were larger than, but not significantly different from, those of `Thompson Seedless', while parthenocarpic fruit from `Black Corinth' and C41-7 had aborted seeds that were smaller than those of C41-5. Seed weight of C41-7 averaged almost 10 times that of aborted C41-5 seeds. This is the first report of a stenospermocarpic, seedless hybrid of V. vinifera × V. rotundifolia.

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To whom reprint requests should be addressed. E-mail address: dramm@qnis.net
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