1Univ. of Florida/IFAS, Hastings Research and Education Center, P.O. Box 728, Hastings, FL 32145-0728; Departments of2 Botany and Plant Sciences,3 Plant Pathology, and4 Nematology, Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0124
As of 2005, methyl bromide will no longer be produced or imported for agricultural use in industrialized countries. The uncertain future of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant has stimulated research into the use of other soil fumigants for weed control. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of methyl bromide (MB), methyl iodide (MI), propargyl bromide (PB), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and metham sodium (MS) alone and in combination with chloropicrin (PIC) against Cyperus esculentus L (yellow nutsedge). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. All experiments were repeated. Tubers were imbibed for 24 h and mixed with soil adjusted to 14% moisture (w/w). Soil/tuber samples were fumigated for 48 h with MB, MI, 1,3-D, and PIC at 0.0, 3.1, 6.3, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μm of active ingredient. Samples were fumigated with PB and MS at 0.0, 0.8, 1.6, 3.1, 6.3, 12.5, 25, and 50 μm of active ingredient. After fumigation and venting, each soil/tuber sample was wetted and placed in a Petri plate for 5 days. Shoot emergence was recorded. Additionally, to determine synergism response with PIC, 17% PIC was added to each fumigant/rate combination. Fumigation and data collection were performed as described above. Dose-response curves were constructed to determine the effective dose to control 50% of nutsedge emergence (ED50). PB and MS were the most efficacious fumigants with ED50's of 3.7 and 6.5 μm, respectively. EC50 values for all the fumigants were significantly lower than MB except for 1,3-D. All the fumigant-PIC combinations resulted in synergistic control of nutsedge.