120 Controlled-release Fertilizer Effects on Growth and Quality of Herbaceous Perennials

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  • 1 Department of Plant Science, Rutgers University, 59 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901

Herbaceous perennials are the hottest item in the ornamental industry, yet relatively little is known about the most appropriate management and cultural practices for many of these species. The response of selected perennials to controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) rates was evaluated in this study. Liners of Coreopsis `Early Sunrise' and `Zagreb', Astilbe `Bridal veil', Hemerocallis `Stelladoro', Phlox `Franz Shubert', and Rudbeckia `Goldstrum' were transplanted to 5.7-L pots filled with a 2 peat: 1 perlite (v/v) medium amended with dolomite and Micromax (2 and 0.6 kg·m-3, respectively). Plants were topdressed with Osmocote 18N-2.7P-10K at rates of 0, 1.8, 3.6, 5.3, 7.1 (industry standard) and 8.9 kg·m-3, and grown over a 3-month period. Plant biomass and quality ratings (including chlorophyll levels) followed an asymptotic behavior with CRF applications for Coreosis `Early Sunrise' and Astilbe `Bridal veil', leveling at ≈1.8 kg·m-3. The rest of the species showed increases in plant growth and quality with CRF rates of 1.8-3.6 kg·m-3, followed by sharp, and significant, reductions at higher CRF rates. Observations of optimum growth and quality at CRF rates 1/2 to 3/4 below commercial recommendations were partially attributed to the use a peat medium, with relatively higher nutrient holding characteristics in relation to the more common pine bark mixes. This observation was confirmed the following season, where plants grown in a 4 pine bark: 1 sand medium (v/v) required higher CRF rates to have similar growth and quality responses to those grown in a 4 peat: 1 bark: 1 sand medium (v/v).

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