110 Callogenesis and Organogenesis of the Apple Rootstock (Malus prunifolia) cv. Marubakaido under Different Aluminum Concentrations and Different Locations of Explants in the Leaf

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  • 1 Federal University of Pelotas, P.O.Box 354,96001-970-Pelotas, RS,Brazil
  • | 2 Embrapa Temperate Climate, P.O.Box 403,Pelotas, RS. Brazil

Three different leaf segments (apical, basal, and middle) were treated in combination with aluminum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg·L-1. Three kinds of leaf segments were inoculated in flasks in 12 replicates, with the adaxial surface touching the medium composed by basic macro- and micronutrient and MS vitamins added to 2,4-D (1.0 mg·L-1); BAP (5.0 mg·L-1); sucrose (30.0 g·L-1); myo-inositol (100.0 mg·L-1) and agar (6.0 g·L-1). The pH was adjusted to 4.0 before autoclaving. After inoculation, the explants were incubated in a dark growth room for 21 days and then, placed during 80 days, at 25 ± 2 °C, 16-h photoperiod provided by white fluorescent lamps under 19 μE·m-2·s-1 radiation. At the end of this period, the explants were evaluated. It was observed that basal leaf explants provided greener callus and that the heavier ones came from the middle leaf explants. Absence of Al or high Al concentrations favored the number of adventitious buds, whereas intermediate concentrations inhibited them. The absence of Al favored basal explants to form adventitious shoots, while lower concentrations favored apical and basal segments. High Al concentration appear to stimulate adventitious shoots in the basal and middle explants. Although it was evident that callus intensities were lower in higher Al concentration, Al is not so harmful to callogenesis and organogenesis.

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