Inheritance of the blood-flesh (red-violet mesocarp) trait in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] was investigated in S1, S2, F1, F2, F3, BC1P1, and BC1P2 families derived from `Harrow Blood', a clone showing anthocyanin accumulation in fruit about 45-50 days after anthesis. This trait invariably was associated with the red midrib leaf phenotype in `Harrow Blood', an S1 family from `Harrow Blood', and in green leaf F2 progeny derived from `Harrow Blood' × `Rutgers Red Leaf 2n'. A segregation ratio of about 3 blood-flesh : 1 wild-type was observed in the S1 family, but F1 progeny produced only wild-type fruit. Examination of F2 progeny segregating for the blood-flesh and red leaf traits revealed no evidence of epistasis. Based on segregation ratios in F1, F2, F3, BC1P1, and BC1P2 families from this cross, the F1 family from `Contender × (`Harrow Blood' × `Rutgers Red Leaf 2n'), and six additional F1 families from crosses between `Harrow Blood' and green leaf clones with wild-type fruit, we propose that blood-flesh is controlled by one gene, designated bf (blood-flesh). The blood-flesh phenotype was associated with reduced tree height in S1 and F2 progeny derived from `Harrow Blood'. Segregation for leaf blade color deviated significantly (P = 0.05) from the expected 3 red : 1 green ratio in six of the F2 families derived from selfing seven F1 trees from `Harrow Blood' × `Rutgers Red Leaf 2n'.