Morphology of Two-year-old Limb Sections and Mid-season Spur Quality of Four Apple Cultivars on Five Dwarfing Rootstocks

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  • 1 1Horticulture Research Center, Kansas State Univ., 1901 E. 95th South, Wichita, KS 67233
  • | 2 2Dept. of Horticulture and Crop Science, Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH 44691
  • | 3 3Dept. of Horticulture, Forestry and Recreation Resources, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS 66506

This study was conducted at three locations (Manhattan, Kan.; Wichita, Kan.; Wooster, Ohio) for 3 years (1994–1996). At bloom, 2-year-old limb sections from `Smoothee', `Jonagold', `Empire', and `Rome' on M.9EMLA, Bud 9, Mark, Ottawa 3, or M.26EMLA were evaluated for flowering and vegetative, spurs (5 cm or less), short shoots (5–15 cm) and long shoots (>15 cm). In mid-August, spur quality was estimated by randomly selecting five spurs per cultivar rootstock combination. There were significant location and year differences for all the morphological and spur quality characters measured. Across locations and years, the following characteristics were consistently high for the cultivars listed: stem density of flowering spurs for `Empire'; and leaf area, bud-diameter and average leaf size per spur for `Jonagold'. The most consistently high characteristics across locations and years for the rootstocks were for stem density of flowering spurs for Mark and leaf number, leaf area, bud-diameter, and average leaf size per spur for M.26EMLA. Stem density for flowering short shoots was highest for `Smoothee' and M.9EMLA in Wooster, `Jonagold' and Bud 9 in Wichita and `Rome', `Jonagold', and Bud 9 in Manhattan. Flowering long shoot stem density was highest for `Smoothee', `Jonagold', and M.26EMLA in Wooster, `Smoothee' in Wichita, and `Jonagold' and Ottawa 3 in Manhattan. There were some significant cultivar by rootstock interactions. The most-consistent interactions across locations and years were for stem cross-sectional area, stem length, stem density of flowering spurs, and flowering short shoots and bud-diameter per spur.

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