Callogenesis and Organogenesis as Affected by NAA and Picloram Concentrations under an Aluminum Medium in Malus prunifolia

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  • 1 1EMBRAPA/CPACT, Cx. P. 403, CEP 96001-970, Pelotas, RS, Brazil
  • | 2 2UFPEL/FAEM, Cx. P. 354, CEP 96010-900, Pelotas, RS, Brazil

The apple crop in Brazil is established in acid soils with low pH. This condition leads to high aluminum levels in the soil. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callogenesis and organogenesis of apple rootstock somatic material under aluminum and different auxins concentrations. Internodes of apple rootstock cv. Marubakaido were inoculated in a MS medium containing aluminum (10 mg·L–1), BAP (5.0 mg·L–1), MS vitamins, myo-inositol (100 mg·L–1), sucrose (30 g·L–1), and agar (6.0 g·L–1). Picloram and NAA were tested at (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 μM. Internodes were inoculated in test tubes and the whole material remained in dark for 3 weeks and then to 16-h photoperiod, 25 ± 2°C and 2000 lux. NAA-treated explants performed better than picloram ones. Callus intensity was maximized at 0.5 μM NAA. Although the higher percentage of callus formed (91%) occurred for NAA at 1.0 μM and 82% for picloram at the same concentration. NAA-treated explants responded for 62% of regenerated callus, while picloram presented only 6%. NAA also increased the mean number of shoots (3.54) and buds (11.52) as compared to picloram, which presented 1.40 and 2.78, respectively.

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