Cooperative Cryopreservation of Dormant Apple Buds from the Canadian Clonal Gene Bank

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  • 1 1USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit, Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY 14456-0462
  • 2 2Canadian Clonal Genebank, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Trenton, Ont., Canada K8V 5R5
  • 3 3USDA-ARS National Seed Storage Laboratory, Ft. Collins, CO 80523

Based on protocols developed by the Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU), Geneva, NY and the National Seed Storage Laboratory, Fort Collins, Colo., nearly 40% of the 2500-accession USDA–ARS Malus germplasm collection has been preserved cryogenically. Recent program changes require the entire Canadian Malus collection of 700 accessions at the Canadian Clonal Genebank, Trenton, Ont., be moved to a new location in Harrow, Ont., by the end of 1996. This provided an opportunity to utilize cryogenic storage during repropagation and reestablishment to develop a security backup for the collection. In a cooperative experiment, dormant buds of four Canadian Malus accessions were collected in Trenton and cryopreserved in Geneva in February 1995. Field-level moisture of dormant buds ranged from 45% to 50%. Three levels of bud desiccation were tested: 25%, 30% (current standard), and 35%. The desiccated buds were containerized and slowly frozen to –30°C, plunged into liquid nitrogen, and held for one month at Geneva prior to recovery testing by bud-grafting at Geneva and Trenton. Results were identical at both sites. We obtained 60% recovery at 30% and 35% moisture levels and 80% recovery at 25% moisture across all four accessions. Further studies on a broader range of germplasm will determine if desiccation to the 25% level is superior to the 30% level. Meanwhile, we have initiated a cooperative project to cryopreserve 350 accessions unique to the Canadian collection at Ft. Collins.

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