Plant regeneration ability of ginseng (Panax ginseng) via organogenesis was studied morphologically and anatomically. Compact callus was introduced from four different types of explants—leaf, petiole, flower stalk, and root—of in vitro-grown plantlets. Petioles were found to be the best material for callus induction. Calli induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1.0 mg·L–1) and kinetin (0.1 mg·L–1) were conditioned for 2 weeks on the same medium. These calli differentiated into adventitious shoots when cultured on half-strength MS basal medium plus kinetin at 1.0 mg·L–1 and STS at 2.5 mg·L–1. An addition of GA3 (1.0 mg·L–1) and BA (1.0 mg·L–1) to MS basal medium, however, induced high-frequency in vitro flowering (86.1%) and multiple shoot budding, which affected the normal, complete development of plantlets. Plantlets with well-developed root systems were obtained 6 weeks after regenerated shoots had been transplanted to half-strength MS20 medium containing IBA at 0.25 mg·L–1. Nuclear DNA content was measured to check the stability of their ploidy level. Based on DNA flow cytometric analysis, all of the regenerants were typically diploids as were the mothers plants, indicating that nuclear DNA content remained stable during cell differentiation.
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