Production of Interspecific Hybrids between Hexaploid Fragaria moschata and the diploid species F. nubicola and F. viridis.

in HortScience

Interspecific crosses with Fragaria moschata (6x) have been hampered by ploidy level differences, poor seed set, and extremely poor seed germination. Modification of pollination practices, embryo rescue, and use of several genotypes has allowed over 80 synthetic tetraploids to be created from 14 cross combinations. Germplasm for the experiment consisted of eight selections of F. moschata (6x), two of F. nubicola (2x), and two of F. viridis (2x). Both 2x × 6x and 6x × 2x crosses were performed. Initially, negligible seed set occurred on F. nubicola and F. viridis when multiple flowers per truss were pollinated. When only one cross was performed per truss, with other flowers removed, seed set was greatly enhanced. F. moschata was much more tolerant of multiple crosses per truss. The crossing combination of F. moschata × F. nubicola gave the worst seed production. Other species combinations were capable of producing good seed set with noticeable differences between individual selections. When achenes were halved, only 1% appeared normal, 2% were underdeveloped or shrunken, the remainder were empty. Many of the malformed and most of the normal embryos germinated using the cut achene method. Achenes were surface-sterilized, cut in half, and placed on MS media with activated charcoal (3g·L–1), sucrose (30g·L–1), and no hormones. Germination occurred only from achenes from fully ripened fruit. Viable hybrids were obtained from 2x × 6x as well as 6x × 2x crosses. Fragaria viridis–F. moschata hybrids closely resembled F. moschata while F. nubicola–F. moschata hybrids were more intermediate in leaf morphology.

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