Cross-pollination within Pecan Orchards

in HortScience
Author: Bruce W. Wood1
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  • 1 USDA–ARS, Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory, Byron, GA 31008

Pecan is wind pollinated, exhibits heterodichogamy and are either protandrous (I) or protogynous (II). Orchards are typically established using two complimentary flowering types but with no further scrutiny as to the degree of compatibility of these two types. Additionally, orchards are sometime established with a very low frequency of pollinator. An evaluation of several orchards revealed that yield losses are due to poor pollination is likely common. Data indicate that trees beyond about 46 m (150 feet) from a complementary pollinator exhibit substantial reductions in fruit-set; therefore, large block-type plantings are disadvantaged. Flowering data over several years show that Type I and Type II cultivars are often functionally noncomplementary, suggesting that pecan cultivars should also be identified with a seasonal identification (i.e., early, mid, and late). Data also indicate that dichogamy patterns substantially change as trees age or with abnormally warm or cool springs; hence, pollination patterns will vary depending upon orchard age. Data indicate that orchards should be comprised of 3+ cultivars. RAPD-DNA analysis of “hooked-nuts” indicates that this trait is not reliable as an indicator of selfing.

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