Plant regeneration of ginseng has been known to be difficult, and there are a few reports on plant regeneration of ginseng via somatic embryogenesis. In vitro flowering has, however, been one of the major drawbacks in these regeneration systems in which BA and GA3 were included in germination and shoot multiplication media. Multiplication of adventitious shoots from a single somatic embryo, abnormal morphology, and vitrified shoots were also observed. All these facts have made successful acclimatization of ginseng plantlets difficult. The purposes of this study were 1) to establish the plant regeneration system via organogenesis, 2) to improve normal plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis, 3) to improve the efficiency of plant regeneration from protoplast culture, 4) to understand the acclimatization process, 5) to develop effective genetic transformation protocol. Data in relation with all these studies are presented in detail.
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