The phenotypic expression and inheritance of the rolC gene in the transgenic plants of Salpiglossis sinuata L. were investigated. The chasmogamous salpiglossis plants with solid yellow flower color (ccrrDD) were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains LBA4404 and EHA101 carrying rolC, GUS, and NPTII genes via a leaf disc co-cultivation system. The transgenic plants were shorter in plant height, produced more branches with a compact growth habit, and developed smaller flowers and narrower leaves as compared to the control plant. While the transgenic plants showed the same corolla color and color shades as the parental line, they became male sterile. A backcross between a male-sterile transgenic plant (ccrrDD plus rolC) and a nontransformed red-flowering line (ccRRDD) produced a progeny with red flower color and the same altered growth habit as the transgenic female parent. Only 4 out of 32 plants in this progeny population showed the negative GUS staining as well as the non transgenic phenotype. These results suggest that at least two copies of the rolC gene were integrated into one homologous chromosome pair during transformation and that a cross-over event may have occurred during meiosis.