Variable Reaction of Tomato Lines to Bacterial Wilt Evaluated at Several Locations in Southeast Asia

in HortScience

Bacterial wilt (BW), caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum E.F. Smith, is one of the most destructive disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in the tropics. Twenty tomato lines/accessions previously identified as BW-resistant were evaluated for BW reaction in fields providing high disease pressure at Subang, Indonesia; Los Baños, Philippines; Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Kuala Lumpur; Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC), Taiwan; and Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Service (TSIPS). Entries also were tested in the greenhouse at the AVRDC with a P. solanacearum strain from Taiwan (Pss4) using a drench inoculation method. Objectives of the study were to identify stable sources of BW resistance for southeast Asian tomato breeding programs, and to determine the correlation between field and greenhouse reactions. Mean entry survival was 21.6% at Subang, 31.9% at Los Baños, 76.7% at the AVRDC, 93.6% at Malaysia, and 93.3% at TSIPS, indicating that most entries were resistant at MARDI and the Taiwan locations but susceptible at Subang and Los Baños. L285 (mean survival = 83.8%) and CRA 84-58-1 (mean survival = 79.4%) were the most resistant entries in the field trials. Mean survival (70.1%) of CRA 66-derived entries was significantly better than the mean of entries with resistance derived from UPCA 1169 or UPCA 1169 plus `Venus' or `Saturn'. Mean survival of AVRDC entries bred in the 1980s (59.4%) was significantly greater than mean survival of AVRDC lines bred in the 1970s (45.7%). The correlation between entry BW percent survival averaged over the five field trials and entry means from drench inoculation in the greenhouse was highly significant (r = 0.70), suggesting that the drench inoculation method is effective in selection for BW resistance.

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