Two field experiments were conducted with subsurface trickle-irrigated romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Parris Island Cos) during the 1990–92 winter growing seasons in southern Arizona. The objectives were to determine 1) yield and quality response to varying combinations of soil water tension (SWT) and N fertilizer, 2) seasonal patterns of N uptake, and 3) unutilized fertilizer N. During 1990–91, N rates were 35, 120, and 205 kg·ha–1. During 1991–92, the experiment was factorial with N levels from 50 to 300 kg·ha–1 and target SWT levels of 7.0 and 4.0 kPa. Unutilized fertilizer N was the difference between fertilized and nonfertilized plots in total N inputs not harvested in the crop. When excessive irrigation was not applied (SWT between 6.5 and 7.4 kPa), 95% of the maximum crop yield and yield quality (head length and fresh mass) response occurred at N rates of 156 to 193 kg·ha–1, with unutilized fertilizer N <60 kg·ha–1. Excessive irrigation (4.6 kPa) resulted in lower yields and yield quality and higher unutilized fertilizer N. Romaine accumulated >74% of its total N uptake in the 38 days before harvest. Unutilized fertilizer N increased sharply when adequate N and water rates were exceeded. These results suggest that a target SWT of no wetter than 6.5 kPa is appropriate for subsurface trickle-irrigated romaine lettuce.