Visualization and Analysis of Air Currents in the Plant Tissue Culture Vessel

in HortScience
Authors: Y. Omura1, Y. Kitaya1, and T. Kozai1
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  • 1 Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba Univ., Matsudo, Chiba 271, Japan

Air currents, and consequent diffusion processes, in the plant tissue culture vessel are slow and limit photosynthesis, transpiration, and uptake of water and nutrients by in vitro plantlets. Air currents in Magenta-type and Mayonnaise bottle-type culture vessels were visualized using fine particles of feathery crystal of metaldehyde [(CH3CHO)4] as tracers. Pictures of visualized air currents were recorded by the video camera. Air current speeds in the culture vessel were determined by analyzing the changes in video pictures with time. Air current speed around the culture vessel was set at 0.1 and 1.0 ms–1. Shortwave radiation flux density on the shelf was varied between 0 and 34 Wm–2. Shortwave absorptivity of the medium was 44% for agar medium and 97% for agar medium containing activated charcoal. Under a shortwave radiation flux density of 10–34 Wm–2, the upward air currents were observed at the central part of the culture vessel and downward air currents were observed near the inside walls of the culture vessel. The upward air current speed was affected by air current speed around the culture vessel, shortwave radiation flux density, and shortwave absorptivity of the medium. Under shortwave radiation flux density of 34 Wm–2, the upward air current speed in the culture vessel was ≈4 times greater with 1.0 ms–1 air current speed around the culture vessel than with 0.1 ms–1.

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