Effect of Soybean Oil on Photosynthesis and Aphids of Apple

in HortScience
Authors:
D.E. Deyton1Dept of Plant and Soil Science, The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901-1071.

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C.E. Sams1Dept of Plant and Soil Science, The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901-1071.

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C.D. Pless2Dept of Entomology and Plant Pathology, The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901-1071.

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Four-year-old `Gala' and `Widjit' apple trees with significant apple aphid populations were sprayed to runoff on 13 May 1994 with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, or 2.0% (v/v) emulsified degummed soybean oil (SO) or with 1.0% petroleum (dormant) oil (PO). Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with five single-tree replications. Apple aphid populations were determined on 10 tagged shoots per tree. The top fully expanded leaf of two randomly selected shoots per tree were tagged and net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration (Tr) measured. Trees treated with SO or PO had <20% as many aphids after treatment as nontreated trees. Trees treated with 2% SO had lower Pn and Tr than the control for 18 days after treatment. Spraying 0.1% or 0.5% SO caused less initial reduction of Pn than 2.0% SO, and the effect was shorter lasting. Four-year-old `Oregon Spur' and `Empire' were sprayed with 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0% SO or PO on 26 June. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with four single-tree replications. Pn rates of trees treated with 0.1% to 1.0% soybean oil were <40% of nontreated trees the day after treatment, but recovered to >80% of control in 5 days.

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