Most plants have a postgermination juvenile phase in which flower induction will not occur. Some species require a cold period for flower induction and will not respond to the cold treatments during the juvenile phase. We determined juvenile phases of Coreopsis grandiflora `Sunray', Gaillardia grandiflora `Goblin', Heuchera sanguinea `Bressingham', and Rudbeckia fulgida `Goldsturm'. Plants were exposed to 5C for 0, 10, or 15 weeks when Coreopsis had 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 leaves (>1 cm); Gallardia, 4, 8, 12, or 16 leaves; Heuchera, 8, 12, 16, or 20 leaves; Rudbeckia, 5, 10, 15, or 20 leaves. Plants were grown under a 4-h night interruption lighting (LD) or under a 9-h photoperiod (SD) after cold treatments. Based on time to flower and final leaf count, the juvenility of Coreopsis, Gaillardia, Heuchera, and Rudbeckia ended when they had about 6, 10, 12, and 15 leaves, respectively. Cold treatments were necessary for flower induction of Coreopsis and Heuchera and they increased the flowering percentage of Gaillardia and Rudbeckia. Heuhera was a day-neutral plant, Rudbeckia was on obligate LD plant, and Gaillardia and Coreopsis were quantitative LD plants.
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