The relationship between cell division, nonstructural carbohydrates and fruit size was investigated using 5-year-old `Encore' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. The trees, which were trained to two opposing scaffolds, were selected for uniformity based on tree size and floral bud density. One-year-old shoots ranging in size from 20 to 30 cm were tagged from throughout the canopy. At anthesis, one entire scaffold was thinned of 75% of its flowers, leaving 25% in the mid-section of each shoot. The opposing scaffold served as the control. Samples were taken at three intervals for histological analysis: Anthesis, 30 days, and 45 days after full bloom. Nonstructural carbohydrates were analyzed on samples taken at five intervals: Anthesis, 10, 20, 30, and 45 days after full bloom. Volumetric size increased 29% by 30 days after full bloom, and 64% by 45 days after full bloom. Final fruit size (volumetric) was increased 8% by harvest.