Selection of the Best Pollinizer for Late-flowering Almond Varieties

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  • 1 Horticultural Dept. of Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran Univ., Tehran, Iran.

In order to select the best pollinizer for late-flowering varieties of Azar (A.H.50), Shokoufeh (AH.3) Sahand (L-62), and Feragues, a range of studies were carried out at Azar-Shahr Horticultural Research Station (Tabriz, Iran) and actions undertaken for introduction of the best pollinizers for these varieties under both laboratory and orchard conditions by a Dactroil Statistical Plan with a completely random base plan. Seven types of pollens from Shokoufes (AH.3), Azar (A.H.50), Sahand (L-62), Ferragnos (Fer), Neplus Ultra (N.P.U.), None Paril (N.P.), and Harir (A.H.25) were selected and the pollen prepared. Pollen was collected from the experimental grounds. Hand-pollination was repeated in three stages for 3 days. Honeybees and other insects were controlled before and after artificial pollination to not interfere with the experiment. Percent fruiting was recorded twice 1 month after pollination (1 June) and again 1 July and analyzed statistically. Average fruiting for female flowers (pollen receivers) was from 0% to 47%. Thus, all varieties could not produce fruit (control). Average fruiting from other pollens with different ratios were significant from 1% to 5%. The almond varieties Azar, Shokoufeh, Sahand, and Ferragnos are self-incompatible and there is no need to emasculate pollen in pollination programs. However, Azar and Harir are incompatible with each other. Pollination efficiency of late-flowering almond varieties depends on the pollinizers and the compatibility with the cultivars, provided that pollination is carried out only by insects, particularly honeybees. The effect of wind on pollination in our almond orchards appeared to be insignificant.

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